Findings on happiness in Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973 /1

Publication
Author(s)Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Investigation
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/7
Collect period7
 See also US 1972/1, US 1972/2, US 1972/3, US 1972/4, US 1972/5, US 1972/6
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability area sample of adults (age 18+) living in non-institutional dwelling units of the 48 coterminous states. The sample is limited to American citizens, and was not tested for representativeness, but no gross biases are expected.
Respondents N =222
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Using highly structured questionnaires.
General remarksSee also US 1973, US 1973/2, US 1972/3, US 1972/4, US 1972/5, US 1972/6
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole.....? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
ClassificationO-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's labelLife1 (+ Life2 and Life4) (G1-G2-G4)
Page in publication66
Error estimatesReliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on same questions asked twice during the interview) between Life1 and Life2: r=+.60 repeat-reliability between Life1 and Life3: r=+.60 repeat-reliability between Life2 and Life3: r=+.60 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.317.18
Standard deviation1.061.76

Scores in1234567
%0.03.03.010.036.040.08.0

Full textSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview: How do you feel about your life as a whole......? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Summation: arithmetic mean Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version) Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
ClassificationO-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's labelLife3 (G3)
Page in publication66
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on single question: Which (of the faces) best described how you feel about your life as a whole? 7 completely happy 6 5 4 neither happy nor unhappy 3 2 1 completely unhappy
ClassificationM-AO-u-sq-f-7-a
Author's labelFaces (G5)
Page in publication66
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.747.90
Standard deviation0.99

Scores in1234567
%0.02.01.04.027.046.020.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?" [ 9 ] best life you might expect to have [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
ClassificationC-BW-cy-sq-l-9-a
Author's labelLadder (G6)
Page in publication66
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 9On range 0 - 10
Mean6.136.40
Standard deviation1.50

Scores in123456789
%1.02.03.04.018.029.029.010.04.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?" (circles not reproduced here ) 8 + + + + + + + + 7 + + + + + + + - 6 + + + + + + - - 5 + + + + + - - - 4 + + + + - - - - 3 + + + - - - - - 2 + + - - - - - - 2 + - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - - - Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
ClassificationO-GBB-u-sq-c-9-a
Author's labelCircles: whole life (G7)
Page in publication66
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 8On range 0 - 10
Mean5.747.20
Standard deviation1.18

Scores in012345678
%0.01.00.02.010.025.035.024.03.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's labelThree-point happiness (G31)
Page in publication68
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel how happy you are.....? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed (about equally satisfied and dissatisfied) 3 mostly 2 unhappy 1 terrible
ClassificationO-HV-u-sq-v-7-b
Author's labelSeven-point happiness (G32)
Page in publication68
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
ClassificationA-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's labelAffect balance (G37)
Page in publication68
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on single question Think back over what your life has been like during the past ten weeks. It may help to try to remember some of the specific things that happened to you, or which you did during this period. Your answers should add up to ten weeks. For what part of that time did you feel about your life as a whole? - delighted - pleased - mostly satisfied - mixed - about equally satisfied and dissatisfied - mostly dissatisfied - unhappy - terrible Measure: number of weeks felt unhappy
ClassificationM-TH-cm-sq-th%-10-a
Author's labelWeeks delighted(G18)
Page in publication67
RemarksFindings based on this measure are not reported in this publication.
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ableness in lifeshow  Efficacious, productive
Ableness in lifeshow  In control (vs drifting), also classified as above ↑
Affect balance_Ashow  A-AB by C-BW
Affect balance_Bshow  O-further by A-AB
Affect balance_Cshow  O-DT by A-AB
Affect balance_Dshow  O-HL by A-AB
Affect balance_Eshow  O-further by A-AB
Affect balance_Fshow  A-AB by M-AO
Amount of bad parts of life: Number of minusesshow  Good and bad parts of life
Amount of change in feelings about lifeshow  Perceived stability of feelings about life
Amount of good parts of life: Number of plusesshow  Good and bad parts of life
Amount of neutral parts of life: Number of neutralsshow  Good and bad parts of life
Contentment with lifeshow  Gratifying (vs frustrating)
Contentment with lifeshow  Varied, also classified as above ↑
Expected change in happiness: Future progressshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected change in happiness: Progress:past&futureshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected happiness Ladder: 5 years henceshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_Bshow  O-further by M-AO
Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_Bshow  O-HL by M-AO
Feeling about life as a whole Faces: whole life_Cshow  O-DT by M-AO
Feeling about life as a whole: Faces: whole life_Dshow  A-AB by M-AO
Feeling about life as a whole: Faces: whole life_Eshow  C-BW by M-AO
Feeling about life compared to othersshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Feelings about the good parts of life: Good partsshow  Good and bad parts of life
Feelings about the poor aspects of life: Bad partsshow  Good and bad parts of life
Happiness compared to others Circles: R-othersshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Happiness relative to neighborshow  Attitudes to happiness of others
Happiness relative to neighborshow  Perceived difference with own happiness, also classified as above ↑
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness _Dshow  O-HL by O-further
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_Ashow  O-further by M-AO
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_Bshow  O-DT by O-further
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_Cshow  O-further by A-AB
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_Eshow  O-further by C-BW
Happiness: Seven-pt. happiness_Fshow  O-further by O-further
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Ashow  O-HL by M-AO
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Cshow  O-HL by O-DT
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Cshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Dshow  O-HL by A-AB
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Eshow  O-HL by O-HL
Happiness: Three-pt. happiness_Fshow  O-HL by O-further
Happiness:Three-pt. happiness_Bshow  O-HL by C-BW
Highest happiness in past year Ladder: bestshow  Extremes of happiness experienced
Idealness of lifeshow  Ideal (vs intolerable)
Interestingness of lifeshow  Good and bad parts of life
Interestingness of lifeshow  Interesting (vs boring), also classified as above ↑
Joy in lifeshow  Pleasant (vs unpleasant)
Lowest happiness in the past year Ladder: worstshow  Extremes of happiness experienced
Overall happiness Circles: whole life _Cshow  O-further by M-AO
Overall happiness Circles: whole life_Ashow  O-DT by O-further
Overall happiness Circles: whole life_Bshow  O-HL by O-further
Overall happiness Circles: whole life_Dshow  O-further by A-AB
Overall happiness Circles: whole life_Eshow  O-further by C-BW
Overall happiness Circles: whole life_Fshow  O-HL by O-further
Overall happiness Ladder: most_Ashow  A-AB by C-BW
Overall happiness Ladder: most_Bshow  O-further by C-BW
Overall happiness Ladder: most_Cshow  O-HL by C-BW
Overall happiness Ladder: most_Dshow  C-BW by M-AO
Overall happiness : Ladder: most ( E )show  O-DT by C-BW
Overall happiness_Ashow  O-DT by C-BW
Overall happiness_Bshow  O-HL by O-DT
Overall happiness_Cshow  O-HL by O-DT
Overall happiness_Dshow  O-DT by M-AO
Overall happiness_Eshow  O-DT by A-AB
Overall happiness_Fshow  O-DT by O-further
Past change in happiness Past progressshow  Recent change
Past happiness Ladder: 5 years agoshow  In recent past
Perceived happiness of others Circles: othersshow  Perceived level of happiness of compatriots
Perceived overall happiness of othersshow  Perceived level of happiness of compatriots
Perceived overall life quality compared to compatriotsshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Perceived overall life quality compared to othersshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Recent happinessshow  In recent past
Rewardingness of lifeshow  Gratifying (vs frustrating)
Satisfaction with accomplishmentshow  Realization of employment goals
Satisfaction with accomplishmentshow  Satisfaction with own accomplishments, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with accomplishmentshow  Successful (vs failure), also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with admiration and acceptance by othersshow  Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with admiration and acceptance by othersshow  Attitudes to own reputation, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with agreement in familyshow  Satisfaction with family
Satisfaction with amount of beautyshow  Interesting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with amount of funshow  Pleasant (vs unpleasant)
Satisfaction with amount of imaginationshow  Interesting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with amount of sleepshow  Satisfaction with amount of sleep
Satisfaction with beneficienceshow  Satisfaction with contributions to others
Satisfaction with chances of getting a good jobshow  Perceived chances for employment
Satisfaction with childrenshow  Attitudes to one's own children
Satisfaction with close adult relativesshow  Satisfaction with close adult relatives
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Meaningful (vs useless)
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Satisfaction with contributions to others, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Satisfaction with meaning, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with familyshow  Satisfaction with family-life
Satisfaction with freedom from bothershow  Easy (vs hard)
Satisfaction with friendsshow  Satisfaction with friends
Satisfaction with health and amount ofphysical workshow  Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with health and amount ofphysical workshow  Satisfaction with physical activity, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with house, appartmentshow  Satisfaction with housing
Satisfaction with houseworkshow  Satisfaction with home-making
Satisfaction with income and financial securityshow  Satisfaction with income\finances
Satisfaction with independenceshow  Satisfaction with freedom
Satisfaction with jobshow  Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Satisfaction with leisureshow  Satisfaction with leisure
Satisfaction with local governmentshow  Attitudes to local government
Satisfaction with marriage and family lifeshow  Satisfaction with family
Satisfaction with marriage and family lifeshow  Satisfaction with marriage, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with mediashow  Satisfaction with media in nation
Satisfaction with mobilityshow  Satisfaction with local transport
Satisfaction with national governmentshow  Attitudes to national government
Satisfaction with natural environmentshow  Attitude to local natural environment
Satisfaction with neatnessshow  Satisfaction with neatness of local streets
Satisfaction with neighborhoodshow  Satisfaction with local environment
Satisfaction with one's creativityshow  Satisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with one's creativityshow  Satisfaction with own creativeness, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with one's dependability and sincerityshow  Satisfaction with own morality
Satisfaction with oppertunity to change thingsshow  Satisfaction with opportunity to change things
Satisfaction with physical needs metshow  Satisfaction with physical needs met
Satisfaction with privacyshow  Attitude to privacy
Satisfaction with privacyshow  Varied, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with reliability of othersshow  Satisfaction with moral climate
Satisfaction with religious faithshow  Satisfaction with religion
Satisfaction with respect from othersshow  Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with respect from othersshow  Satisfaction with respect for rights in nation, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with safetyshow  Attitudes to victimization
Satisfaction with safetyshow  Satisfaction with safety in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with school facilities in the areashow  Satisfaction with local schools
Satisfaction with school facilities in the areashow  Satisfaction with school-facilities, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with self-adjustmentshow  Satisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with servicesshow  Satisfaction with local shops
Satisfaction with sex lifeshow  Satisfaction with sex-life
Satisfaction with spare time activitiesshow  Satisfaction with leisure activities
Satisfaction with sport and recreation facilitiesshow  Satisfaction with local recreation
Satisfaction with standards and values of societyshow  Satisfaction with moral climate
Satisfaction with taxesshow  Satisfaction with taxes in nation
Satisfaction with the way people over 40 think and actshow  Current attitudes
Satisfaction with the way people over 40 think and actshow  Satisfaction with compatriots in nation, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with the way young people think and actshow  Satisfaction with compatriots in nation
Satisfaction with the weathershow  Attitude to local climate
Satisfaction with treatment by othersshow  Attitudes to own popularity
Satisfaction with treatment by othersshow  Satisfaction with compatriots in nation, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with use of own educationshow  Satisfaction with education
Satisfactionsshow  Mixed multiple life-appraisals
Satisfactions with links to the past and traditionsshow  Perceived continuity of time
Stability in feelings about lifeshow  Perceived stability of feelings about life
Today's moodshow  Mood during the day of interview
Uniqueness of lifeshow  Unique (vs common)
Usefulness of lifeshow  Meaningful (vs useless)
Variation in past happiness Ladder: best-worstshow  Recent change
Variation in past happiness Ladder: best-worstshow  Variability of affects, also classified as above ↑
Weeks delighted_Ashow  C-BW by M-AO
Weeks delighted_Bshow  M-AO by M-AO
Weeks delighted_Cshow  O-HL by M-AO
Weeks delighted_Dshow  A-AB by M-AO
Weeks delighted_Eshow  O-further by M-AO
Weeks feeling delightedshow  O-DT by M-TH
Weeks unhappyshow  O-DT by M-TH
Weeks unhappy_Ashow  M-AO by M-AO
Weeks unhappy_Bshow  A-AB by M-AO
Weeks unhappy_Cshow  C-BW by M-AO
Weeks unhappy_Dshow  O-HL by M-AO
Weeks unhappy_Eshow  O-further by M-AO
Weighted feelings about aspects of lifeshow  Good and bad parts of life
Wish to change lifeshow  Wish to change life
Worriesshow  Amount of worrying