Findings on happiness in Estes (1973): study US 1971

Author(s)Estes, R.J.
TitleDeterminants of Differential Stress Levels among University Students.
SourceJournal of the American College Health Association, 1973, Vol. 21, 470 - 476
PublicUniversity students, mental patients and controls, California, USA, 1971-72
 1971 - 1972
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability samples of patients and controls. Patients having consulted the Psychiatric Clinic of the Student Health Service during the 1971 - 1972 academic year. 140 patients, 140 controls; both patients and controls are representative of students at all levels of educational experience.
Respondents N =280
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview and highly structured questionnaire.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: "....feeling in good spirits usually..." 2 yes 1 no
Author's labelGood spirits.
Finding used in
nation ranks
Scores in12

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Earlier psychiatric treatmentshow  Earlier mental health