Findings on happiness in Lowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969

Author(s)Lowenthal, M.F.; Chiriboga, D.A.
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 A. high school seniors (facing college, job, marriage,) chunk sample: class of senior high school men N:25, women N:27 B. newly weds (facing parenthood) snowball sample: recruted by respondents and marriage lists men N:25, women N:25 C. midle aged parents (facing empty nest) chunk sample: parents of high school students men N:27, women N:27 D. elderly planning to retire snowball sample: recruted by respondents and organisations men N:30, women N:30
Respondents N =216
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Half-structured focused interview
General remarksSame study reported in Lowenthal 1975 and Chiroboga 1975
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: In general, how happy are you these days .....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelMorale
Page in publication87
Remarks% very happy: 25 to 52
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on 11 questions: "During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" A angry B bored C could not get going D depressed E lonely F too busy G uneasy H excited I on top of the world J pleased K proud Answer options and scoring: - yes = 1 - no = 0 Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -7 to +5 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelAffect Balance
Page in publication87
Remarks13.7 to 16.0
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Cumulative stressshow  Burden of earlier life-events
Mental health: complexityshow  Current general mental health
Mental health: complexityshow  PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION, also classified as above ↑
Perceived stress (preoccupation with stress)show  Burden of earlier life-events
Recent stressshow  Summed life-events: standard weights