Findings on happiness in Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973

Publication
Author(s)Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Investigation
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
Collect period4
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleProbability area sample
 Probability area sample of adults (age 18+) living in non-institutional dwelling units of the 48 coterminous states. The sample is limited to American citizens, and was not tested for representativeness, but no gross biases are expected.
Respondents N =1433
Non Response26%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 using highly structured questionnaires
General remarksSee also US 1973/1, US 1973/2, US 1973/3, US 1973/4, US 1973/5, US 1973/6
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole.....? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
ClassificationO-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's labelLife1 (and Life2) (G1-G2)
Page in publication209
Error estimatesReliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on the same questions asked twice during the interview): r=+.68 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.307.17
Standard deviation1.051.75


Full textSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview: How do you feel about your life as a whole......? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Summation: arithmetic mean Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version) Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
ClassificationO-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's labelLife3 (G3)
Page in publication311
RemarksCombination of two ratings on 7-step scale results in 14 steps, with the following frequencies 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 % % % % % % % % % % % % % 6.8 8.7 23.9 19.2 22.4 8.0 6.4 1.4 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.407.33
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?" [ 9 ] best life you might expect to have [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
ClassificationC-BW-cy-sq-l-9-a
Author's labelLadder (G6)
Page in publication209
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 9On range 0 - 10
Mean6.076.34
Standard deviation1.632.03

Scores in123456789
%1.02.03.07.023.023.023.011.07.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?" (circles not reproduced here ) 8 + + + + + + + + 7 + + + + + + + - 6 + + + + + + - - 5 + + + + + - - - 4 + + + + - - - - 3 + + + - - - - - 2 + + - - - - - - 2 + - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - - - Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
ClassificationO-GBB-u-sq-c-9-a
Author's labelCircles (G7)
Page in publication209
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 8On range 0 - 10
Mean6.538.16
Standard deviation1.511.89

Scores in012345678
%11.015.027.020.022.03.01.00.01.0

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Educational levelshow  Level of school-education
Expected change in happinessshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected change in happinessshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Expected change in happiness: Progress past & futureshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected change in happiness: Progress past & futureshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Expected happiness Ladder:5 years henceshow  In the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected happiness Ladder:5 years henceshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Family life cycleshow  Family career (family life-cycle)
Feelings about life as a wholeshow  Mixed multiple life-appraisals
Highest overall happiness: Ladder bestshow  Extremes of happiness experienced
Highest overall happiness: Ladder bestshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Incomeshow  Current income level (unspecified)
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionshow  O-DT by O-further
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionshow  O-further by O-further, also classified as above ↑
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionshow  O-further by C-BW, also classified as above ↑
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionshow  Rating of happiness by interviewer, also classified as above ↑
Lowest overall happiness: Ladder: worstshow  Extremes of happiness experienced
Lowest overall happiness: Ladder: worstshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Overall compared to others: Circles:R-othersshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Overall compared to others: Circles:R-othersshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeshow  O-DT by O-further
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeshow  O-further by C-BW, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Life 3show  O-DT by O-DT
Overall happiness Life 3show  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness: Ladder: mostshow  O-DT by C-BW
Overall happiness: Ladder: mostshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past change in overall happiness: Past progressshow  Recent change
Past change in overall happiness: Past progressshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past happiness: Ladder:5 years agoshow  In recent past
Past happiness: Ladder:5 years agoshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past years extremes: Ladder:best-worstshow  Extremes of happiness experienced
Past years extremes: Ladder:best-worstshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Perceived happiness of others: Circles: othersshow  Perceived level of happiness of compatriots
Perceived happiness of others: Circles: othersshow  Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with acceptance by othersshow  Attitudes to own reputation
Satisfaction with achieving successshow  Realization of employment goals
Satisfaction with adjustment to changes in lifeshow  Satisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with adjustment to changes in lifeshow  Satisfaction with own coping with life-change, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with amount of beautyshow  Interesting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with amount of funshow  Pleasant (vs unpleasant)
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Attitudes to own support behavior
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Meaningful (vs useless), also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Satisfaction with contributions to others, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with developing oneselfshow  Realization of educational goals
Satisfaction with fair treatment by othersshow  Attitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with fair treatment by othersshow  Satisfaction with fair treatment in nation, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with financial securityshow  Satisfaction with financial security
Satisfaction with freedom from bothershow  Easy (vs hard)
Satisfaction with independanceshow  Satisfaction with freedom
Satisfaction with interestingness of daily lifeshow  Interesting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with neatnessshow  Satisfaction with neatness of local streets
Satisfaction with one's sincerityshow  Satisfaction with own morality
Satisfaction with one's toughnessshow  Satisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with oneselfshow  Current satisfaction with self
Satisfaction with others sincerityshow  Attitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with others sincerityshow  Satisfaction with moral climate , also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with physical needs metshow  Satisfaction with physical needs met
Satisfaction with physical workshow  Satisfaction with physical activity
Satisfaction with pressureshow  Relaxed (vs stressful)
Satisfaction with religious faithshow  Satisfaction with religion
Satisfaction with respect from othersshow  Trust in people
Satisfaction with safetyshow  Secure (vs threatened)
Satisfation with physical workshow  Satisfaction with physical activity
Satsfaction with contribution to others lifeshow  Satisfaction with meaning
Social economic statusshow  'Objective' socio-economic status
Social economic statusshow  Status consistency, also classified as above ↑
Status consistencyshow  Over/under-achievement
Status consistencyshow  Status consistency, also classified as above ↑
White raceshow  Ethnic status in the USA