Findings on happiness in McCrae & Costa (1991): study US Baltimore County, Maryland 1979

Author(s)McCrae, R.R.; Costa, P.T.
TitleAdding 'Liebe und Arbeit': The Full Five Factor Model and Well-Being.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1991, Vol. 17, 227 - 232
PublicSingle males and couples Baltimore USA, followed 7 years, 1979-86
Last assesment1986
 T1: 1979, T2:1981, T3: 1986
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability sample of volunteers and their spouses, consisting of 258 males and 171 females, aged between 24 and 87.
Respondents N =429
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelAffect Balance Scale
RemarksT1: M=2.81 SD=1.89 Ms'= 7.81 SDs'= 1.89 T2: M=2.89 SD=2.00 Ms'= 7.89 SDs'= 2.00
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole.....? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
Author's labelLife-satisfaction
RemarksT1: M=4.50 SD= .98 Ms'= 5.80 SDs'= 1.63 T2: M=4.52 SD=1.02 Ms'= 5.86 SDs'= 1.70
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Actual past happiness_Ashow  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Actual past happiness_Bshow  Earlier life-appraisals
Actual past happiness_Cshow  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Affect Balance Scoreshow  O-SL by A-AB
Agreeablenessshow  Kind
Agreeablenessshow  Later kindness, also classified as above ↑
Conscientiousnessshow  Conscientious
Conscientiousnessshow  Earlier conscientiousness, also classified as above ↑
Extraversionshow  Extraverted
Extraversionshow  Later locus of control, also classified as above ↑
Future happinessshow  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Later life-appraisalshow  Later life-appraisals
Life satisfactionshow  O-DT by A-AB
Life Satisfaction Indexshow  Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Negative affectshow  Feeling down (vs not)
Neuroticismshow  Later psycho-somatic complaints
Openness to experienceshow  Later openness
Openness to experienceshow  Open, also classified as above ↑
Positive affectshow  Feeling elated (vs not)