Findings on happiness in Michalos (1986): study CA 1984

Author(s)Michalos, A.C.
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Collect period7-11
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 In the period from July to November 1984 900 names were drawn ,using random numbers, from the lists of 60+ residents (entitled to direct school taxes) of Hamilton, Guelph, Mount Forest and Hillsburgh (Canada)
Respondents N =457
Non Response47%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....? 7 delightful 6 very satisfying 5 satisfying 4 mixed 3 dissatisfying 2 very dissatisfying 1 terrible No opinion Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
Author's labelSatisfaction with life as a whole
RemarksM = 5.40 SD = .88 skewness: -.54 Ms'= 7.33 SDs'= 1.47
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.88

Full textSelfreport on single question: Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:? 1 very unhappy 2 | unhappy 3 4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness 5 | happy 6 7 very happy no opinion
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksM = 5.42 SD = 1.26 skewness: -.12 Ms'= 7.37 SDs'= 2.10
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.26

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Chronological ageA04ab03Age difference among elderly
IncomeI01abCurrent income level (unspecified)
Joint effectsS15ab04Socio-demographic + life-appraisals
Level of educationE01ab02Level of school-education
Life compared to that deservedL04ae01eLife compared with standard of fairness
Life compared with best previous experienceL04ae01bLife compared with earlier situation
Life compared with needsL04ae01fLife compared with needs
Life compared with that of othersL04ae01dLife compared with situation of others
Life compared with wantsL04ae01Single-standard comparisons
Life progressL04ae01cLife compared with expectations
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Satisfaction sumscoresL04ad02Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Satisfaction with financial securityI01af05cSatisfaction with financial security
Satisfaction with friendshipsF06ah04Satisfaction with friends
Satisfaction with healthH14af04Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with housingH22ae02Satisfaction with housing
Satisfaction with spouseM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage
Self esteemS02ad02Evaluation of self-as-a-whole