Findings on happiness in Michalos (1986): study CA 1984

Author(s)Michalos, A.C.
TitleAn Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378
Public60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Collect period7-11
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 In the period from July to November 1984 900 names were drawn ,using random numbers, from the lists of 60+ residents (entitled to direct school taxes) of Hamilton, Guelph, Mount Forest and Hillsburgh (Canada)
Respondents N =457
Non Response47%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....? 7 delightful 6 very satisfying 5 satisfying 4 mixed 3 dissatisfying 2 very dissatisfying 1 terrible No opinion Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
Author's labelSatisfaction with life as a whole
RemarksM = 5.40 SD = .88 skewness: -.54 Ms'= 7.33 SDs'= 1.47
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.88

Full textSelfreport on single question: Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:? 1 very unhappy 2 | unhappy 3 4 an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness 5 | happy 6 7 very happy no opinion
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksM = 5.42 SD = 1.26 skewness: -.12 Ms'= 7.37 SDs'= 2.10
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.26

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Chronological ageshow  Age difference among elderly
Incomeshow  Current income level (unspecified)
Joint effectsshow  Socio-demographic + life-appraisals
Level of educationshow  Level of school-education
Life compared to that deservedshow  Life compared with standard of fairness
Life compared with best previous experienceshow  Life compared with earlier situation
Life compared with needsshow  Life compared with needs
Life compared with that of othersshow  Life compared with situation of others
Life compared with wantsshow  Single-standard comparisons
Life progressshow  Life compared with expectations
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Satisfaction sumscoresshow  Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Satisfaction with financial securityshow  Satisfaction with financial security
Satisfaction with friendshipsshow  Satisfaction with friends
Satisfaction with healthshow  Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with housingshow  Satisfaction with housing
Satisfaction with spouseshow  Satisfaction with marriage
Self esteemshow  Evaluation of self-as-a-whole