Findings on happiness in Schulz & Decker (1985): study US 1985

Author(s)Schulz, R.; Decker, S.
TitleLongterm Adjustment to Physical Disability: The Role of Social Support, Perceived Control and Self-Blame.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985, Vol. 48, 1162 - 1172
Public40+ aged, spinal-cord-injured, non-institutionalised, Portland Oregon, USA, 198?
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunck sample.Non-institutionalised subjects,with injury at least 5 years ago (average 20 yrs), were selected with the aid of organisations working with spinal-cord-injured persons. All respondents were Caucasians; 90% male, most married.
Respondents N =100
Non Response4%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview, partly by telephone
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 8 questions: "Here is a list that describes some of the ways people feel at different times. How often do you feel each of these ways?" A Very lonely or remote from other people B Depressed or very unhappy C Bored D So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair E Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why F On top of the world G Particularly excited or interested in something H Pleased about having accomplished something Answer options: 0 never 1 sometimes 3 often Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on F, G, H Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on A, B, C, D, E Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range -15 to +9 Transformed to a 7 point scale, where 1 is all or almost all positive feelings and 7 is all or almost all negative feelings. 1 = neg 0-1 and pos 7-9 2 = neg 0-1 and pos 4-6 2 = neg 2-3 and pos 7-9 3 = neg 0-1 and pos 3 3 = neg 2-3 and pos 4-6 3 = neg 4-5 and pos 7-9 4 = neg 0-1 and pos 0-2 4 = neg 2-3 and pos 3 4 = neg 4-5 and pos 4-6 4 = neg 6-15 and pos 7-9 5 = neg 2-3 and pos 0-2 5 = neg 4-5 and pos 3 5 = neg 6-15 and pos 4-6 6 = neg 4-5 and pos 0-2 6 = neg 6-15 and pos 3 7 = neg 6-15 and pos 0-2 Name: Berkman modified variation of Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Age at injuryshow  Time since handicap
Disabledshow  Physical handicap
Joint effectshow  Socio-demographic + health + personality + social ties
Perceived avoidability of injuryshow  Attitudes to handicap
Perceived avoidability of injuryshow  Attitudes to victimization, also classified as above ↑
Percieved controlshow  Inner locus of control
Satisfaction with amount of social contactshow  Satisfaction with amount of personal contacts
Satisfaction with quality of social contactshow  Satisfaction with quality of personal contacts
Self percieved healthshow  Global health rating
Self-blamingshow  Blaming
Social supportshow  Amount of current support received