Findings on happiness in Simmons et al. (1973): study US 1968

Author(s)Simmons, R.G.; Rosenberg, F.; Rosenberg, M.
TitleDisturbance in the Self-Image at Adolescence.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1973, Vol. 38, 553 - 568
PublicPublic school pupils age 8-18, Baltimore, USA, 1968
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 25 schools, stratified by race and income, were randomly selected from the Baltimore area. 105 children were randomly selected from each school.
Respondents N =1988
Non Response27%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Pupils interviewed after school
General remarksSample closely approximated the known characteristics of the population, except for a slight underrepresentation of older children.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 6 questions: A On the whole, how happy would you say you are? B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person. C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in good or in low spirits? D I get a lot of fun out of life. E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be. F How often do you feel downcast and rejected? Response options: not reported The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire. Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
Author's labelDepressive Affect
Error estimatesGuttman scale reproducebility 92.2% Guttman scale scalability 69.5%
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Age difference among young people