Findings on happiness in Willits et al. (1978): study US 1946

Author(s)Willits, F.K.; Bealer, R.C.; Crider, D.M.
TitleMigrant Status and Success: A Panel Study.
SourceRural Sociology, 1978, Vol. 43, 386 - 402
PublicHighschool pupils, rural area, followed 25 years, Pennsylvania, USA, 1946-71
Last assesment1971
 T1: 1946-47 and T2: 1971
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample in 1946-47, all members of the sophomore classes in 74 rural high schools completed questionnaires as part of a study undertaken by the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology at the Pennsylvania State University. In 1971, 2081 of these people were located and interviewed.
Respondents N =2081
 T1: 2806, T2: 2081
Non Response26%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksA person was classified as a migrant only if the two resideces were 50 or more miles apart; all other persons were considered as nonmigrants. In this sample, 72 percent belonged to the nonmigrant-category.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
MigrationM09aa01dRecently moved
Miles to metropolisL13ab02Community size
Miles to metropolisL13ab06Remoteness, also classified as above ↑
not namedS15ab02Socio-demographic + environmental factors
Population sizeL13ab02Community size