Findings on happiness in Caudill & Weinstein (1969): study ZZ East-West pairs 1961

Author(s)Caudill, W.C.; Weinstein, H.
TitleMaternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.
SourcePsychiatry, 1969, Vol. 32, 12 - 43
DOIdoi: 10.1177/0022002186017003001
PublicInfants and first born in intact middle class families, Japan and USA, 1961-64
 Japan: 1961-1962, America: 1962-1964
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Np purposive, matched for social class (father's occupation; salaried or independent).
Respondents N =60
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentBehavioural observation
 Observation of mothers and infants at home
General remarks20 of these children were observed again at the age of two-and-a-half and at the age of six, but these data are not reported in this article.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textTime sampling of happy behaviors: Researchers observed the baby's in the home. One observation of one second was made every fifteenth second. Any positively voiced sound as observed by the researcher counted as a happy vocal and any negatively voiced sound counted as a unhappy vocal.
Author's labelTotal vocal
Error estimatesReliability: Reliability was tested with the investigator as "constant" observer as compared to the observer in Japan and the observer in the USA. Happy vocal: Japan 70% agreement per case. USA 70% agreement per case. Unhappy vocal: Japan 89% agreement per case. USA 88% agreement per case. Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Father's occupationF01ag03Parents occupation
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
NationalityN10ab01Comparison of non-representative nation-samples