Findings on happiness in Lowenthal et al. (1975): study US 1969

Publication
Author(s)Lowenthal, M.F.; Chiriboga, D.A.; Thurnher, M.
TitleFour Stages of Life. A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transition.
SourceJossey-Bass, 1975, San Francisco, USA
Investigation
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis,USA, 1969
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 A. high school seniors (facing college, job, marriage) chunk sample: class of senior high school, men N:25, women N:27 b. newly weds (facing parenthood) snowball sample: recruted by respondents and marriage lists. men N:25, women N:25 c. middle aged parents (facing empty nest) chunk sample: parents of high school students. men N:27, women N:27 d. elderly planning to retire. Snowball sample: recruted by respondents and organisations. Men N:30, women N:30
Respondents N =216
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Lengthy interviews
General remarksSame study reported in LOWEN 73 and CHIRI 75
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 8 questions. "During the past week, did you ever feel.....?" A very lonely B restless C bored D depressed E on top of the world F excited or interested G pleased about accomplishment H proud Answer options: 1 never 2 once 3 several times 4 often Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H -Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13 Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
ClassificationA-BB-cw-mq-v-4-d
Author's labelAffect Balance Score
Page in publication87
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 25On range 0 - 10
Mean15.005.80
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
ClassificationO-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa
Author's labelOverall happiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Mean2.306.30
Standard deviation

Scores in123
%13.048.039.0

Full textSelfreport on 3 questions: A. " Dissatisfied" and "Unhappy" responses on the Block (1961) Adjective Rating List. B. Overall happiness. Single direct question: "Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .......?" 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy C. Present-year score on Life-Evaluation Chart, ranging from: 1 low 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 high
ClassificationO-Sum-u-mq-*-0-a
Author's labelLife satifaction
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 9On range 0 - 10
Mean29.307.40
Standard deviation


Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Activity-scopeshow  Current time-usage
Ease-contentment activitiesshow  Current leisure activity
Ease-contentment activitiesshow  Current time-usage, also classified as above ↑
Ease-contentment activitiesshow  Leisure, also classified as above ↑
Ease-contentment activitiesshow  Leisure activity level, also classified as above ↑
Expressive activitiesshow  Current contacts
Expressive activitiesshow  Socializing, also classified as above ↑
Expressive activitiesshow  Time spend socializing, also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesshow  Current number of roles
Familial rolesshow  Ever had children (vs not), also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesshow  Family career (family life-cycle), also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesshow  Having grand-children, also classified as above ↑
Familial rolesshow  Number of siblings, also classified as above ↑
Growth activitiesshow  Current time-usage
Growth activitiesshow  Studying, also classified as above ↑
Hedonistic activitiesshow  Current use of stimulants
Hedonistic activitiesshow  Leisure, also classified as above ↑
Hedonistic activitiesshow  Leisure activity level, also classified as above ↑
Instrumental activitiesshow  Current time-usage
Non-goal directed activitiesshow  Household work
Non-goal directed activitiesshow  Personal care, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesshow  Current employment status
Occupational rolesshow  Current number of roles, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesshow  Current occupation, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesshow  Involved in schooling or not, also classified as above ↑
Occupational rolesshow  Work roles, also classified as above ↑
Philosophical activitiesshow  Concern about meaning
Philosophical activitiesshow  Concern about own values, also classified as above ↑
Philosophical activitiesshow  Concern about religion, also classified as above ↑
Respondent- interviewer agreementshow  Congruency self-image and reputation
Self-criticismshow  Self-critical
Social service activitiesshow  Current support behavior
Social service activitiesshow  Time spent on work and care, also classified as above ↑
Social service activitiesshow  Voluntary work, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeshow  Later life-change
Stage of lifeshow  Later retirement, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeshow  Recent marriage, also classified as above ↑
Stage of lifeshow  Stage of life, also classified as above ↑
Total role scopeshow  Current number of roles