Findings on happiness in Matlin (1966): study PR 1963

Author(s)Matlin, N.
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Collect period11
 Nov.,1963, -Jan.,1964 and Aug.-Oct.,1964
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability simple random sample of Puerto Ricans of age 20+ See also MATLI 1966/2 validation sample: 114 out-patients of psychiatric hospital.
Respondents N =1417
 (excluding validation sample)
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question: Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...? 3 very happy 2 fairly happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication5
Error estimatesReliability: Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.691.77

Scores in123

Full textSelf report on 9 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): AC+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +4 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adjusted version 'excited/interested' item dropped)
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksPossible range: -6(low) to +3(high); Actual range: 15% score -3 or less; 19% score -1 or -2; 29% score 0; 23% score 1, 14% score 2 or 3 M = -.38 Ms' = 6.2 -3 = 2.16"
Error estimatesReliablility: Equivalence positive items : Q ranging from +.36 to +.58 Equivalence negative items : Q ranging from +.66 to +.84 positive x negative items : Q ranging from -.05 to +.30 positive affect score x negative affect score: G' = -.14 (01) Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -5 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Full textSelf report on single question: " Are you most of the time in ....?" 4 very good spirits 3 good spirits 2 low spirits 1 very low spirits
Author's labelSpirits
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Affect Balanceshow  O-HL by A-AB
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Being in good spiritsshow  A-AOL by A-AB
Boredshow  Feeling interested
Depresssed or unhappyshow  Feeling down (vs not)
Divorced vs separatedshow  Vs separated
Economic prosperity of the countryshow  Economic affluence in nation
Educational levelshow  Level of school-education
Enjoying lifeshow  Perceived difference with own happiness
Feeling restlessshow  Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Feeling uneasyshow  Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Incomeshow  Current income level (unspecified)
Inertiashow  Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Living as married vs divorcedshow  Living-as-married vs divorced
Living as married vs separatedshow  Living-as-married vs separated
Living as married vs widowedshow  Living-as-married vs widowed
Living as married vs. formally marriedshow  Formally-married vs living-as-married
Living as married vs. never marriedshow  Living-as-married vs never married
Lonely or remoteshow  Feeling lonely (vs not)
Male sexshow  Sexe: male (vs female)
Married vs divorcedshow  Married vs divorced
Married vs never marriedshow  Married vs never married
Married vs separatedshow  Married vs separated
Married vs widowedshow  Married vs widowed
Mental disturbancesshow  Being in treatment for mental disorder (vs not)
Mental disturbancesshow  In ambulatory treatment, also classified as above ↑
Never married separatedshow  Vs separated
Never married vs divorcedshow  Vs divorced
Never married widowedshow  Vs widowed
On top of the worldshow  Mood during the interview
Physical ailmentsshow  Number of health complaints
Pleased at accomplishmentshow  Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Proud of complimentshow  Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Restlessshow  Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Self-perceived healthshow  Global health rating
Uneasyshow  Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy)
Widowed vs divorcedshow  Vs divorced
Widowed vs separatedshow  Vs separated