Findings on happiness in George (1978): study US NorthCarolina 1973

Author(s)George, L.K.
TitleThe Impact of Personality and Social Status Factors upon Levels of Activity and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 33, 840 - 847
Public50+ aged, whites, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 197?
Survey nameNot available
 Third wave of a longitudinal study of aging (Palmore 1974).
SampleNot available
 Probability sample drawn from a list of a local health insurance program. Four test dates at two year intervals. 197 white males, 183 white females, aged 50-76. Overrepresentation of people with low income, low education, and sick or disabled.
Respondents N =380
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelPsychological well-being
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Activity levels on aweekly basisshow  Attendance to meetings
Ageshow  Age difference among elderly
Anxietyshow  Anxious
Conscientiousnessshow  Conscientious
Conservationshow  Conservating
Controlshow  Impulsive (vs self controlled)
Cortical arousalshow  Vigorous
Dominanceshow  Dominant
Educationshow  Level of school-education
Emotional stabilityshow  Stable
Employment statusshow  Current employment status
Extraversionshow  Extraverted
Health impairmentshow  Expert rating of health
Independenceshow  Independent
Intelligenceshow  Test-intelligence
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Marital statusshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Naivetéshow  Naive
Occupational prestigeshow  Social prestige of occupation
Outgoingshow  Outgoing
Practicalityshow  Practical
Securityshow  Secure
Self sufficiencyshow  Modest (vs supercilious)
Sense of trustshow  Trusting
Sobernessshow  Sober
Social boldnessshow  Bold
Sociodemographic variables and personalityshow  Socio-demographic + personality
Tensenessshow  Tense
Tough mindednessshow  Tough