Findings on happiness in Schulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984

Author(s)Schulz, W.; Költringer, R.; Norden, G.; Tüchler, H.
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Respondents N =1776
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Highly structured
General remarksOriginal research report in the German language. Partly published in: Schulz, W., Norden, G., KÖltringer,R.-Subjektive Lebensqualität in Osterreich. Sozialwissenschaftliche Rundschau, no. 2, 1988, vol.28, p.162-173.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 3 questions: A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....? 5 very happy 4 fairly happy 3 rather happy than unhappy 2 rather unhappy than happy 1 very unhappy - DK/NA B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....? 5 very satisfied 4 fairly satisfied 3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied 2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied 1 fairly dissatisfied - DK/NA C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....? 5 very high 4 high 3 moderate 2 rather low 1 very low - DK/NA Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life
Author's labelOverall quality-of-life
Error estimatesReliability: Equivalence: Cronbachs Alpha=.79 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.70

Scores in12345

Full textSelfreport on 4 questions: A For the past five years, how much have you accomplished of what you planned in your life? 1 completely failed 2 3 4 5 6 7 completely accomplished B How much are you satisfied with your life as a whole these days? 1 completely dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 completely satisfied C How much do you enjoy your life these days? 3 a great deal 2 a fair amount 1 not very much D How happy have you been for the past five years? 1 completely unhappy 2 3 4 5 6 7 completely happy Summation: % positive answers Response options A, D and C not reported in full detail
Author's labelGlück (Happiness)
Page in publication44
Error estimatesReliability: Equivalence: Cronbachs Alpha=.68 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.80

Full textSelfreport on single question: When you consider your life-as-a-whole now, would you say you are …? 5 very happy 4 fairly happy 3 rather happy 2 rather unhappy 1 fairly unhappy
Author's labelGlück (Happiness)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in12345

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking your life as a whole, are you .......? 5 very satisfied 4 quite satisfied 3 more satisfied than discontented 2 more discontented than satisfied 1 quite dissatisfied
Author's labelZufriedenheit (satisfaction)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.851.46

Scores in12345

Full textSelfreport on single question: How well do you feel these days? Is your current well-being....? 0 very low 1 2 3 4 very high
Author's labelWohlbefinden (Psychological well-being)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in01234

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Accesibility of leisure time activitiesshow  Leisure facilities in vinicity
Achievement orientedupbringingshow  Demanding
Active membership of a clubshow  Attendance to meetings
Affectionate upbringingshow  Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Alcohol consumptionshow  Use of alcohol
Availability of a carshow  Car
Body weightshow  Weight
Combined effects of partner related correlates_Ashow  Current characteristics of spouse
Combined effects of partner related correlates_Bshow  Current characteristics of spouse
Communication with familyshow  Contacts with relatives
Community sizeshow  Community size
Contacts with relativesshow  Contacts with relatives
Cooperation with colleaguesshow  Satisfaction with colleagues
Domain satisfactions_Ashow  Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Domain satisfactions_Bshow  Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Educationshow  Level of school-education
Education oriented upbringingshow  Demanding
Frequency of church attendanceshow  Participation in church
Frequency of contactwith partnershow  Shared activities of partners
Frequency of sexshow  Sexual activity
General intellectual and cultural developmentshow  Self-perceived preferences
Happy parentsshow  Happiness of parents
Having a partner and childshow  Current parental status
Having a partner and childshow  Married state (compared to non-married states), also classified as above ↑
Healthy eating habitsshow  Concern about nutrition
Hours workshow  Hours work
Illnessshow  Number of health complaints
Incomeshow  Current income level (unspecified)
Informal work relationsshow  Interaction at work
Intensity of watching  Tv watching, radio listening
Judgment on family lifeshow  Satisfaction with family-life
Leisure time activityshow  Leisure activity level
Male sexshow  Sex (male vs female)
Marital loyaltyshow  Conjugal fidelity in marriage
Married vs divorcedshow  Married vs divorced
Married vs never marriedshow  Married vs never married
Married vs no partnershow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Married vs widowedshow  Married vs widowed
Material satisfactionshow  Satisfaction with standard of living
Never married vs divorcedshow  Vs divorced
Never married vs widowedshow  Vs widowed
Partner related factorsshow  Current characteristics of spouse
Personal characteristicsshow  Socio-demographic + life style + personality
Personal view on 'relation and sexuality'show  Satisfaction with sex-life
Personal weight controlshow  Health inspection
Physical fittness activitiesshow  Active involvement in sports
Postmaterial attitudeshow  Post-materialic values
Professional statusshow  Social prestige of occupation
Professional status of the husbandshow  'Objective' socio-economic status
Professional status of the husbandshow  Social status of spouse, also classified as above ↑
Psychosomatic healthproblemsshow  Current psycho-somatic complaints
Satisfacionshow  Life-stress inventories
Satisfaction with leisure timeshow  Satisfaction with leisure
Satisfaction with partnershow  Satisfaction with marriage
Satisfaction with physical healthshow  Satisfaction with health
Satisfaction with selfrealizationshow  Satisfaction with self-realization
Satisfaction with social involvementshow  Satisfaction with social participation
Satisfaction with work (-negative-)show  Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Satisfaction with work (-positive-)show  Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Self perceived locus-of-controlshow  Inner locus of control
Self perceived political orientationshow  Preference for: left vs right wing
Selfcontrol in work situationshow  Self-direction at work
Smoking habitsshow  Use of tobacco
Social contactsshow  Current contacts
Social-psychologicalfactorsshow  Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Sociodemographic variablesshow  Socio-demographic factors only
Stability orientation of locus-of-controlshow  Inner locus of control
Suffering from jealousyshow  Jealous
Time for leisureshow  Satisfaction with time for leisure
Variety of workshow  Variety of work
Widowedshow  Vs divorced
Work conditions (physical)show  Work place