Findings on happiness in Cargan et al. (1989): study ZZ East-West pairs 1987

Author(s)Cargan, L.; Hamura, S.; Sakai, T.
TitleLeisure Time and Happiness: A Crosscultural Comparison of East and West.
SourceUnpublished Paper, Wright State University, 1989, USA
Public21+ aged, married, Japan and USA, 1987
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 USA: multi stage probability sample, married adults Japan: non-probability chunk sample, married adults, 21 years old or over
Respondents N =400
 USA: 240, Japan: 160
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 USA: face to face interview, Japan: highly structured questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: "How happy are you most of the time.....?" 3 happy 2 neither happy nor unhappy 1 unhappy
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksJapan: M= 2.79 Ms'= 8.95 SD= .54 USA: M= 2.84 Ms'= 9.2 SD= .5
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
NationalityN10ab02Comparison of specific social categories in nations