Findings on happiness in Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929

Publication
Author(s)Schaefer, E.S.; Bayley, N.
TitleMaternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
SourceMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1165694.pdf
Investigation
PublicChildren followed from age 0 to 18, Berkeley, California, USA, 1929-47
Last assesment1947
 T1: 1929 T2: 1947
Survey nameNot available
 Berkely Growth Study: See Bayley 1933.
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample of children, born in two Berkeley hospitals in 1928 and 1929, and their mothers (Berkeley Growth Study; see Bayley 1933). Full-term infants of white, English speaking parents:
Respondents N =54
 27 boys, 27 girls.
Non Response13% drop-outs (7 children and their mothers)
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Behavioral observation and interviews
General remarksSame study also reported in MCGRA 1968. Data gathering: Structured and unstructured observations of overt behavior of mothers and their children during the children's first three years, and of the child- ren's behavior until the age of 18, and interviews with the mothers between the children's age of 9 to 14 years. N: (54 children and their mothers) during the first years of the children's life. The sample is smaller at higher ages but never less than 13 boys and 13 girls. For the interview with mothers in the period of the children's age from 9 to 14 years, data of 34 mothers were available.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textTime sampling of happy behaviors The children were rated during the first 3 years of their lives, after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 36 months of living for 'Emotional tone: unhappy - happy' on a 7-point scale. Scoring rated on 7-step numerical scale. Summation: Later the ratings of 10 - 12, 13 - 15, 18 - 24, and 27 - 36 months were combined. Rated on 7-step numerical scale.
ClassificationA-CP-mi-tsb-n-7-a
Author's labelEmotional tone
Error estimatesRetest reliability within combined months: 10 - 12 months: for boys r = +.83, for girls r = +.56 13 - 15 months: for boys r = +.80, for girls r = +.85 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.78, for girls r = +.47 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.66, for girls r = +.63 Retest reliability between combined months: 10 - 12 x 13 - 15 months: for boys r = +.64 (05), for girls r = +.72 (05) 10 - 12 x 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.61 (05), for girls r = +.51 (05) 10 - 12 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.50 (05), for girls r = +.48 (05) 13 - 15 x 18 - 24 months: for boys r = +.65 (05), for girls r = +.69 (05) 13 - 15 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.68 (05), for girls r = +.48 (05) 18 - 24 x 27 - 36 months: for boys r = +.64 (05), for girls r = +.72 (05)
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Activityshow  Active
Activityshow  Later personality development
Current characteristics (at 10-36 months of age)show  PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 0-3)show  Permissive vs dominant
Freedom allowed by the mother (at Ss age 9-14)show  Permissive vs dominant
Happiness at age 12 - 18show  Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Later characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age)show  PERSONALITY: LATER
Later characteristics (at 12-18 yearsof age)show  PERSONALITY: LATER
Later characteristics (at 27-96 months of age)show  PERSONALITY: LATER
Later characteristics (at 9-12 years of age)show  PERSONALITY: LATER
Later marital happiness of mothershow  Parents marital satisfaction
Mother characteristics (at Ss age 0-3)show  Parental behavior (earlier for adults, current for young)
Mother's characteristics (at Ss age 9-14)show  Later family situation
Speed of movementsshow  Active
Speed of movementsshow  Later personality development