Findings on happiness in Stacey & Gatz (1991): study US 1971

Author(s)Stacey, C.A.; Gatz, M.J.
TitleCross-Sectional Age Differences and Longitudinal Change on the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1991, Vol. 46, 76 - 78
PublicThree generations of family members, followed 14 years, USA, 1971-85
Last assesment1985
 T1: 1971, T2: 1985
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample. Grandfathers aged 55 or older with at least one grandchild between age 16-20 were systematically sampled from the rolls of a health maintenance organisation. Questionnaires were mailed to these grandparents and their spouses, the parents of their grandchildren and all the grandchildren in the age 16-20.
Respondents N =1159
Non ResponseAttrition T1-T2: 43%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Mailed questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelOverall psychological well-being
Remarkspossible range 0-40 (20 added to original in order to eliminate negative values) T1 (1971): M=21.57 SD=2.04 Ms'=6.65 T2 (1985): M=22.11 Sd=2.17 Ms'=7.11
Error estimatesReliability: Cronbach alpha ranges between .62 and .73 Validity: `convergent' validity shown in correlations with: - depression (CES-D scale, Radloff 1977) - psycho-somatic symptoms (Derogatis & Spencer 1982)
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Overall psychological well-beingH04ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)