Findings on happiness in Moller (1988a): study ZA 1983

Author(s)Moller, V.
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 A questionnaire schedule containing open- and closed-ended items was administred to 253 former male contract workers who had retired to their homes in rural KwaZulu, the hinterland which supplies the labour force of metropolitan Durban in Natal Province, South Africa. Male retirees were interviewed in five different rural areas of KwaZulu (the self-governing "homeland" of the Zulus) which are characterised by high rates of circulatory migration.
Respondents N =253
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksThe same study is reported in more detail in: Moller, V. 'Quality of life in retirement: A survey evaluation of return-migration to Kwazulu'. Center for applied social sciences, University of Natal, Durban, South Afica; Monograph no 10. 1985.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking your life as a whole, are you .......? 5 very satisfied 4 quite satisfied 3 more satisfied than discontented 2 more discontented than satisfied 1 quite dissatisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in12345

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....? 5 very happy 4 happy 3 neither happy nor unhappy 2 unhappy 1 very unhappy
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in12345

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Access to a confidantI07ab01Having a confident or not
Achieved/confident of becoming wealthyL07ac03Perceived realization of specific life-goals
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Age at retirement from wage labour (migrant work)R14ae05Age at retirement
Approval of early retirementR14aa01aEarlier attitudes to retirement
Christian religionR12acCurrent religious denomination
Community roleS09abCurrent socio-economic status
Comparative happiness (relative to grandparents)H11ab03cPerceived difference with own happiness
Congruence aspirations/ achievementsL07ac03Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Desire to return to workR14agAttitudes to retirement
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Evaluation of retirementR14ag02Satisfaction with retirement
Feels youngA04af01aSubjective age (how old one feels)
Frequency of home visits while workingin townM11aa01Earlier migrant work
Grows cash cropF04ac02Specialization of farm
Health- satisfactionH14af04Satisfaction with health
Interviewer's affluence ratingI01ae02Relative to neighborhood
Job satisfaction when in wage employmentW05aa01bEarlier satisfaction with work
Joint effects _BS15ab44Various combinations of current conditions
Joint effects_AS15abSummed effects of current individual conditions (micro level)
Keeps chickenF04ac02Specialization of farm
Life satisfactionH07aa01bO-HL by O-SL
Married or notM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Modern community leaderM14ab01Modern attitudes
ModernityM14ab01Modern attitudes
Monthly cash incomeI01ab01Personal income
Need to purchase maizeF04ac02Specialization of farm
Newcomer in communityM09aa01dRecently moved
Number of children supportedC05abCurrent relation with one's children
Number of years retired (from migrant work)R14aa02aTime since retirement
Number of years worked in town (migrant work)O01aa01Earlier occupation
Owns cattleF04ac02Specialization of farm
Owns goatsF04ac02Specialization of farm
Pension incomeI01ad03bPension
Perceived restrictions due to ill healthH14ac01Degree of restriction
Perceived financial adequacyI01ac02Subjective poverty
Perceived financial deprevation in retirementR14agAttitudes to retirement
Perceived financial deprevation in retirementI01aa02cChange to better or worse, also classified as above ↑
Perceived security of landholdingF04acCurrent characteristics of the farm
Perception of ageing graduallyA04af01dAttitude to ageing (getting older)
Personal modernityM14ab01Modern attitudes
Planning is key to succes in lifeP08ab01Planning mindedness
PolygamistM03ab03aPolygamous marriage (vs monogamous)
Positive anticipation of retirementR14aa01aEarlier attitudes to retirement
Preference for entrepreneurship in retirementL07ab08Object of life-goals
Retirement meets expectationsR14agAttitudes to retirement
Sudden retirement (from migrant work)R14ae01Sudden retirement (vs gradual)
Total years worked in wage employment (migrant work)O01aa01Earlier occupation
Traditionalist religionR12acCurrent religious denomination
Type of houseH22ab02Type of current dwelling