Findings on happiness in Moller (1988a): study ZA 1983

Author(s)Moller, V.
TitleQuality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658
PublicEx-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 A questionnaire schedule containing open- and closed-ended items was administred to 253 former male contract workers who had retired to their homes in rural KwaZulu, the hinterland which supplies the labour force of metropolitan Durban in Natal Province, South Africa. Male retirees were interviewed in five different rural areas of KwaZulu (the self-governing "homeland" of the Zulus) which are characterised by high rates of circulatory migration.
Respondents N =253
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksThe same study is reported in more detail in: Moller, V. 'Quality of life in retirement: A survey evaluation of return-migration to Kwazulu'. Center for applied social sciences, University of Natal, Durban, South Afica; Monograph no 10. 1985.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking your life as a whole, are you .......? 5 very satisfied 4 quite satisfied 3 more satisfied than discontented 2 more discontented than satisfied 1 quite dissatisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in12345

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are ....? 5 very happy 4 happy 3 neither happy nor unhappy 2 unhappy 1 very unhappy
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Scores in12345

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Access to a confidantshow  Having a confident or not
Achieved/confident of becoming wealthyshow  Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Ageshow  Current age (in years)
Age at retirement from wage labour (migrant work)show  Age at retirement
Approval of early retirementshow  Earlier attitudes to retirement
Christian religionshow  Current religious denomination
Community roleshow  Current socio-economic status
Comparative happiness (relative to grandparents)show  Perceived difference with own happiness
Congruence aspirations/ achievementsshow  Perceived realization of specific life-goals
Desire to return to workshow  Attitudes to retirement
Educationshow  Level of school-education
Evaluation of retirementshow  Satisfaction with retirement
Feels youngshow  Subjective age (how old one feels)
Frequency of home visits while workingin townshow  Earlier migrant work
Grows cash cropshow  Specialization of farm
Health- satisfactionshow  Satisfaction with health
Interviewer's affluence ratingshow  Relative to neighborhood
Job satisfaction when in wage employmentshow  Earlier satisfaction with work
Joint effects _Bshow  Various combinations of current conditions
Joint effects_Ashow  Summed effects of current individual conditions (micro level)
Keeps chickenshow  Specialization of farm
Life satisfactionshow  O-HL by O-SL
Married or notshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Modern community leadershow  Modern attitudes
Modernityshow  Modern attitudes
Monthly cash incomeshow  Personal income
Need to purchase maizeshow  Specialization of farm
Newcomer in communityshow  Recently moved
Number of children supportedshow  Current relation with one's children
Number of years retired (from migrant work)show  Time since retirement
Number of years worked in town (migrant work)show  Earlier occupation
Owns cattleshow  Specialization of farm
Owns goatsshow  Specialization of farm
Pension incomeshow  Pension
Perceived restrictions due to ill healthshow  Degree of restriction
Perceived financial adequacyshow  Subjective poverty
Perceived financial deprevation in retirementshow  Attitudes to retirement
Perceived financial deprevation in retirementshow  Change to better or worse, also classified as above ↑
Perceived security of landholdingshow  Current characteristics of the farm
Perception of ageing graduallyshow  Attitude to ageing (getting older)
Personal modernityshow  Modern attitudes
Planning is key to succes in lifeshow  Planning mindedness
Polygamistshow  Polygamous marriage (vs monogamous)
Positive anticipation of retirementshow  Earlier attitudes to retirement
Preference for entrepreneurship in retirementshow  Object of life-goals
Retirement meets expectationsshow  Attitudes to retirement
Sudden retirement (from migrant work)show  Sudden retirement (vs gradual)
Total years worked in wage employment (migrant work)show  Earlier occupation
Traditionalist religionshow  Current religious denomination
Type of houseshow  Type of current dwelling