Findings on happiness in Levitt et al. (1986): study US 1984

Author(s)Levitt, M.J.; Clark, M.C.; Weber, R.A.
TitleSocial Network Relationships as Sources of Maternal Support and Well-Being.
SourceDevelopmental Psychology, 1986, Vol. 22, 310 - 316
PublicMothers of 13-months infants, Florida, U.S.A., 1984
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample:mothers selected through birth records from a population living within the vicinity of the university.
Respondents N =43
Non Response20%
Assesment Niet gebruiken Questionnaire: paper and pencil
 Mailed questionnaire and behavioral observation
General remarksSample characteristics: families can be described as urban,intact and middle-class.10% mothers employed >35 hours a week, 64% non-employed. 100% mothers and fathers graduaded high-school,20% baccalaureate degrees, 17% mothers and 22% fathers advanced degrees. Income-range $10,000 to $50,000 with 72% an income between $15,000 and $25,000.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelAffect Balance Scale
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on single question: We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....? 7 completely satisfied 6 5 4 neutral 3 2 1 completely dissatisfied
Author's labelLife-satisfaction index
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Child care assistanceS10ab02Sources of current support
Emotional supportS10ab02Sources of current support
Family situationF02ac04Current climate
Help satisfactionS10ac03Satisfaction with social support received
Infant difficultyC04ab03Behavior of one's children
Relationship satisfactionI07ab04Perceived quality of intimate ties
Satisfaction with spouseM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage
Spousal supportS10ab02Sources of current support
Spousal supportM04ad01Support by spouse, also classified as above ↑