Findings on happiness in Seidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988 /2

Publication
Author(s)Seidlitz, L.; Diener, E.
TitleMemory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664
Investigation
PublicPsychology students, selected for earlier happiness, followed 11 month, USA, 198?-8?
 Year of data gathering not reported. T1-T2 difference 11month
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 T0: Non-probability chunk sample of 443 undergraduate psychology students, which were sceened on happiness by means of a 11-point scale (AFF 1.1) T1: Selected for further research were 65 subjects with a score below 6 and 65 with a score above 8. From these 130 subjects 94 participated in study 2 (SEILD 1993/2) T2: 54 of these returned for further testing 11 month later (study 3) Participants in the latter study were paid.
Respondents N =54
Non ResponseDrop-out: T0-T1: 28%, T1-T2: 41%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaire completed in class
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 2 questions: A: "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness. 10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic) 9 very happy (feeling really good, elated) 8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good) 7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful) 6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral) 5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy) 4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral) 3 mildly unhappy (just a little low) 2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down) 1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low) 0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)" B: "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average. - What percent of the time do you feel happy? - What percent of the time do you feel unhappy? - What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy nor unhappy)? Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%". Scoring: - Question A : 0.- 10 - Question B : % happy Summation : (A * 10 + B)/2
ClassificationA-AOL-g-mq-*-0-a
Author's labelHappiness Measure
Error estimatesReliability: retest reliability: - after 2,5 month: r=+.83 - after 11 month: r=+.77 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on single question: ." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?" Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness. 10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic) 9 very happy (feeling really good, elated) 8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good) 7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful) 6 slightly happy (just a bit above neutral) 5 neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy) 4 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral) 3 mildly unhappy (just a little low) 2 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down) 1 very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low) 0 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down) Fordyce Happiness Scale
ClassificationA-AOL-g-sq-v-11-a
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ability to recall aspects of American lifeshow  Current specific mental abilities
Balance of eventsshow  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
balance of life eventsshow  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Balance of recalled life-events; 3 yrs (checklist)show  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Balance of recalled life-events; 3 yrs (free recall)show  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Balance of recalled life-events; last yr(checklist)show  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Balance of recalled life-events; last yr(free recall)show  Balance of negative- and positive life-events
Current moodshow  Mood during the interview
Earlier happinessshow  Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Satisfaction with lifeshow  Current overall judgements of life as a whole