Findings on happiness in Wessman et al. (1960): study US 1957

Author(s)Wessman, A.E.; McIlvaine-Tyl, M.; Ricks, D.F.
TitleCharacteristics and Concomitants of Mood Fluctuations in College Women.
SourceJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1960, Vol. 60, 117 - 126
PublicFemale college students, followed 6 weeks, Radcliffe, USA, 1957
Collect period10-12
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample of volunteering Radcliffe college students.
Respondents N =14
Non Response44% dropouts
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Mood diary completed daily during 6 weeks and various tests
General remarksSame study reported in WESSM, 1966/1.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling) "On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue' 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue' 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
Author's labelElation - depression
RemarksPositively skewed. Individual means of the daily average ratings varied from 5.43 to 7.37; mean of their means: 6.14; median: 6.14; Ms' = 6.14.
Error estimatesReliability: Repeat reliability: between-subject variance in scores of daily mood shown to be greater than variances within individual daily records (significant at 01 level). Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Consistency of self-conceptS02afCurrent consistency of self-image
Ideal-self descriptionsS02acCurrent self-ideal
Mood fluctuationA03ab05Variability of affects
Real self descriptionsS02abCurrent self-characterization
Self-esteem (real-ideal congruency)S02ad03aReal-ideal congruence