Findings on happiness in Kalmuss et al. (1992): study US 1989

Author(s)Kalmuss, D.; Bauer, U.; Namerow, P.B.
TitleShort-Term Consequences of Parenting Versus Adoption among Young Unmarried Woman.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1992, Vol. 54, 80 - 90
PublicUnmarried teenage mothers, USA, 1989-1990
Collect period2
 February 1989 to June 1990
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 recruted:: 75% from maternity clinics; 17% from prenatal clinics; 8% from pregnancy programs and adoption agencies
Respondents N =527
Non Response>10%
AssesmentInterview: telephone (CATI)
General remarksinterviews took place 6 month's after giving birth
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: "...... how satisfied are you with your life-as-a-whole......?" (Full question not reported) 1 not very satisfied 2 somewhat satisfied 3 very satisfied 4 extremely satisfied
Author's labelsatisfaction with life in general
Page in publication83-84
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
ageA04ab02Age difference among young people
high school graduateE01ab02Level of school-education
lived with both parents at age 14F01ab02Number of parents (broken home)
living in maternity residencesI02aa01Ever lived in an institutional setting
parenters versus placersF03aa02Change in family-life
parenters versus placersC03aa02Change in parental status, also classified as above ↑
race (black/white)E04ab03tEthnic status in the USA
received public assistance while growing upI01ad03cWelfare
summed effectsS15ac01Life-appraisals + personality