Findings on happiness in Bray & Howard (1980): study US 1956

Author(s)Bray, D.W.; Howard, A.
TitleCareer Succes and Life-Satisfactions of Middle Aged Managers.
SourceBond, L.A.;Rosen, J.C.;Eds.: "Competence and Coping during Adulthood", University Press of New England, 1980, London, UK, 258 - 287
Public40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
Last assesment1976
 T1: 956, T2, T3, T4, T5; 1976
Survey nameNot available
 In 1956 started longitudinal "Management Progress Study" (MPS) of Bell Company, redirected in 1976 as "MPS20" with remainder sample in further longitudinal study.
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 New managers (N=422) from 6 Bell Companies, all expected to represent nearly all the persons to rise to middle management or higher in the years to come from 1) recent college graduated hired as management trainees 2) non-college employees risen from non-management jobs into management before age of 32, recruited at T1 (1956). Survivors (N=266) reassessed for this study at T5 (1976).
Respondents N =422
 T1: 422, T5 :266:
Non Responsepanel loss a t T5: 37%
AssesmentRating by experts
 Expert ratings based on various methods used in assesment center
General remarksT1 : Assessment-center entry in groups spread over 4 year-period from 1956-1960; T2: Annual interviews over period 1957-1963. T3: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over 4 year-period from 1964-1968; T4: triannual interviews over period 1965-1975; T5: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over 4 year-period from 1976-1980; **) at T1: N=422. at T5 : N=266: BRAY 1980 reports first 80 subjects of T5-sample (N=80) BRAY 1983 reports an analysis on the full T5-sample (N=266). NB Part of the data reported in BRAY 1983 are summarized in this exerpt (BRAY 1980), with mention N=266.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center. Rater instruction: "To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?" 1 low 2 3 average 4 5 high
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication277
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ascendancyshow  Assertive
Conservativeshow  Conservative
Creativityshow  Test-creativeness
Drop in primacy of workshow  Attitudes to one's occupation
Earlier ascendancyshow  Earlier assertiveness
Earlier emotional stabilityshow  Earlier stability
Earlier expectations inventoryshow  Earlier work-attitudes
Earlier mental ability _Ashow  Earlier intelligence
Earlier mental ability _Bshow  Earlier intelligence
Earlier selfconfidenceshow  Earlier self-confidence
Emotional stability/lack of nervousnessshow  Stable
General informationshow  UNCLASSIFIED
Mental ability_Ashow  Current general intelligence
Mental ability_Bshow  Current general intelligence
Need for heterosexuality_Ashow  Earlier sex-life
Need for heterosexuality_Bshow  Attitudes to one's sex-life
Need for heterosexuality_Bshow  Sexual preference, also classified as above ↑
Need for peer approvalshow  Approval seeking
Need for superior approvalshow  Approval seeking
Planning and organizationshow  Planning ability
Range of interestsshow  Current interests
Self-confidenceshow  Self-confidant
Self-developmentshow  Self-actualization (need for)
Selfishnessshow  Egoistic
Succoranceshow  Approval seeking