Findings on happiness in Bray & Howard (1983): study US 1956

Author(s)Bray, D.W.; Howard, A.
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
Last assesment1976
 T1: 1956, T2, T3, T4, T5: 1976 *
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 New managers (N=422) from 6 Bell Companies, all expected to represent nearly all the persons to rise to middle management or higher in the years to come from 1) recent college graduated hired as management trainees 2) non-college employees risen from non-management jobs into management before age of 32, recruited at T1 (1956). Survivors (N=266) reassessed for this study at T5 (1976).
Respondents N =422
 T1: 422, T5: 266
Non ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
AssesmentRating by experts
 Expert ratings based on various methods used in assesment center
General remarksT1: Assesment-center entry in groups spread over period 1956 -1960; T2: Annual interviews over period 1957-1963; T3: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over period 1964-1968; T4: Triannual interviews over period 1965-1975 ; T5: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over period 1976- 1980. BRAY 1980 reports first 80 subjects of T5-sample (N= 80); BRAY 1983 reports an analysis on the full T5-sample (N= 266). NB Part of the data reported in this exerpt (BRAY 1983) are summarized in BRAY 1980, with mention N=266.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center. Rater instruction: "To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?" 1 low 2 3 average 4 5 high
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication296
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Absence of familial worriesF02ag01Concern about family
Absence of financial worriesI01af01bWorrying about money
AdjustmentP04abPersonality integration
Avocational interestsL03ad02Leisure aspirations
Career satisfactionO01ad01bSatisfaction with career
Career successO01aa03aAdvancement in current job
Career successW04aa02Change in work-conditions, also classified as above ↑
Concern with agingA04af01dAttitude to ageing (getting older)
Concern with healthH14af01Concerns about health
Feelings of crisisM15ac11Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Job satisfactionW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Marital satisfactionM03ac03Satisfaction with marriage
ReligiousR12abCurrent religious beliefs
Stability of marriageM01ad03bExpected change in marital status