Findings on happiness in Bray & Howard (1983): study US 1956

Author(s)Bray, D.W.; Howard, A.
TitleThe AT & T Longitudinal Studies of Managers.
SourceSchaie, K.W.; Ed.: "Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development", Guilford Press, 1983, New York, USA, 266 - 312
Public40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
Last assesment1976
 T1: 1956, T2, T3, T4, T5: 1976 *
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 New managers (N=422) from 6 Bell Companies, all expected to represent nearly all the persons to rise to middle management or higher in the years to come from 1) recent college graduated hired as management trainees 2) non-college employees risen from non-management jobs into management before age of 32, recruited at T1 (1956). Survivors (N=266) reassessed for this study at T5 (1976).
Respondents N =422
 T1: 422, T5: 266
Non ResponsePanel loss at T5 37%
AssesmentRating by experts
 Expert ratings based on various methods used in assesment center
General remarksT1: Assesment-center entry in groups spread over period 1956 -1960; T2: Annual interviews over period 1957-1963; T3: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over period 1964-1968; T4: Triannual interviews over period 1965-1975 ; T5: Assessment-center entry in groups spread over period 1976- 1980. BRAY 1980 reports first 80 subjects of T5-sample (N= 80); BRAY 1983 reports an analysis on the full T5-sample (N= 266). NB Part of the data reported in this exerpt (BRAY 1983) are summarized in BRAY 1980, with mention N=266.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textClinical rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during periodical stays in assessment center. Rater instruction: "To what extend does this person find pleasure in life at the present time..........?" 1 low 2 3 average 4 5 high
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication296
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Absence of familial worriesshow  Concern about family
Absence of financial worriesshow  Worrying about money
Adjustmentshow  Personality integration
Avocational interestsshow  Leisure aspirations
Career satisfactionshow  Satisfaction with career
Career successshow  Advancement in current job
Career successshow  Change in work-conditions, also classified as above ↑
Concern with agingshow  Attitude to ageing (getting older)
Concern with healthshow  Concerns about health
Cynicismshow  Trusting
Feelings of crisisshow  Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Job satisfactionshow  Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Marital satisfactionshow  Satisfaction with marriage
Religiousshow  Current religious beliefs
Stability of marriageshow  Expected change in marital status