Findings on happiness in Kainulainen (1998): study FI 1991

Publication
Author(s)Kainulainen, S.
TitleElämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
SourceKuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland
Investigation
Public18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
 Data from both 1991/'92 and 1996
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Respondents N =2682
Non Responsenot rep
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question: How satisfying do you find your life at the moment.....? 1 very dissatisfying 2 quite dissatisfying 3 not satisfying not dissatisfying 4 quite satisfying 5 very satisfying
ClassificationO-SLu-c-sq-v-5-g
Author's labelSatisfaction with Life (SWL)
RemarksCombined result of the 1991/'92 and the 1996 data. Average SWL-value in 1991/'92 = 3.82, that in 1996 increased to 3.89 (p < .10)
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 5On range 0 - 10
Mean3.86
Standard deviation0.82

Scores in12345
%1.75.814.561.216.8

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Becoming dependent upon othersshow  Change in freedom
Becoming dependent upon othersshow  Characteristics of intimate-network, also classified as above ↑
Becoming dependent upon othersshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Becoming dependent upon othersshow  Earlier sufficiency of income, also classified as above ↑
Becoming dependent upon othersshow  Relations with parents, also classified as above ↑
Been a victim of property crimesshow  Earlier life-events
Been a victim of property crimesshow  Victim of crime, also classified as above ↑
Been a victim of violence outside homeshow  Earlier life-events
Been a victim of violence outside homeshow  Earlier victimization (ever victimized), also classified as above ↑
Been offered drugsshow  Earlier life-events
Been offered drugsshow  User career, also classified as above ↑
Being heavily indebtedshow  Debts
Being heavily indebtedshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Being heavily indebtedshow  Earlier sufficiency of income, also classified as above ↑
Being neglected or forgottenshow  Earlier life-events
Being neglected or forgottenshow  Feeling lonely (vs not), also classified as above ↑
Being unemployedshow  Unemployed involuntary
Breaking off an important relationshipshow  Change in intimacy
Breaking off an important relationshipshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Causing my family (close) problemsshow  Current climate
Causing my family (close) problemsshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Changes at work due to technical developmentshow  Change in work-conditions
Changes at work due to technical developmentshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Changes at work due to technical developmentshow  Earlier work-conditions, also classified as above ↑
Conflicts, difficulties in social relations at workshow  Earlier life-events
Conflicts, difficulties in social relations at workshow  Earlier work-conditions, also classified as above ↑
Conflicts, difficulties in social relations at workshow  Problems at work, also classified as above ↑
Cut in unemployment benefitshow  Change in source of income
Cuts in child allowance or child benefitsshow  Change in source of income
Cuts in health benefitsshow  Change in source of income
Cuts in social and health servicesshow  Change in source of income
Difficulties in getting (medical) careshow  Current medical consumption
Difficulties in getting (medical) careshow  Earlier health-behavior, also classified as above ↑
Difficulties in getting (medical) careshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Difficulties in supporting familyshow  Earlier sufficiency of income
Difficulties in supporting familyshow  `objective` poverty, also classified as above ↑
Disablementshow  Change in handicap
Disablementshow  Current handicap, also classified as above ↑
Disablementshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Disagreements with neighboursshow  Earlier residence
Disagreements with neighboursshow  Life-event career, also classified as above ↑
Disagreements with neighboursshow  Social contacts in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone nearshow  Characteristics of intimates
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone nearshow  Current use of stimulants, also classified as above ↑
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone nearshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone nearshow  Earlier victimization (ever victimized), also classified as above ↑
Falling outside the social welfare systemshow  Change in source of income
Family situationshow  Current household-composition
Family situationshow  Elderly in the household, also classified as above ↑
Family situationshow  Living alone or not, also classified as above ↑
Family situationshow  Living with children, also classified as above ↑
Family situationshow  Single parent, also classified as above ↑
Financial problems (because of illness)show  Earlier sufficiency of income
Financial problems (because of illness)show  Specific earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Gone banktrup (or been near)show  Change in possessions
Gone banktrup (or been near)show  Debts, also classified as above ↑
Gone banktrup (or been near)show  Specific earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Having to go into institutional careshow  Earlier life-events
Having to go into institutional careshow  Ever lived in an institutional setting, also classified as above ↑
Inability to workshow  Earlier handicap
Inability to workshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Inability to workshow  Unfit for work, also classified as above ↑
Inadequate facilities (in housing)show  Earlier life-events
Inadequate facilities (in housing)show  Housing-career, also classified as above ↑
Inadequate facilities (in housing)show  Quality of current dwelling, also classified as above ↑
Income sufficiencyshow  Sufficiency of current income
Isolated livingshow  Earlier life-events
Isolated livingshow  Household-composition career, also classified as above ↑
Isolated livingshow  Living alone or not, also classified as above ↑
Lack of privacy (in housing)show  Attitude to privacy
Lack of privacy (in housing)show  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Lack of privacy (in housing)show  Household-composition career, also classified as above ↑
Lack of privacy (in housing)show  Need for privacy, also classified as above ↑
Losing my memoryshow  Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Losing my memoryshow  Earlier mental health, also classified as above ↑
Losing one's mindshow  Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Losing one's mindshow  Earlier mental health, also classified as above ↑
Low incomeshow  Earlier level of income
Low incomeshow  Household income , also classified as above ↑
Obligatory expenditure growing too heavyshow  Earlier sufficiency of income
Obligatory expenditure growing too heavyshow  `objective` poverty, also classified as above ↑
Own divorce/separationshow  Earlier life-events
Own divorce/separationshow  Ever divorced/separated, also classified as above ↑
Own divorce/separationshow  Recent divorce/separation, also classified as above ↑
Own divorce/separationshow  Specific life-changes, also classified as above ↑
Pain and sufferingshow  Burden of earlier life-events
Pain and sufferingshow  Pain, also classified as above ↑
Restless neighbourhoodshow  Current livability of local environment
Restless neighbourhoodshow  Earlier residence, also classified as above ↑
Risk of deathshow  Distance to death
Risk of deathshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Risk of deathshow  Earlier physical health, also classified as above ↑
Risky and dangerous surroundings (in housing)show  Earlier life-events
Risky and dangerous surroundings (in housing)show  Housing-career, also classified as above ↑
Risky and dangerous surroundings (in housing)show  Quality of house, also classified as above ↑
Scantiness of a pensionshow  Earlier sufficiency of income
Scantiness of a pensionshow  Subjective poverty, also classified as above ↑
Scantiness of health compensationshow  Subjective poverty
Scantiness of social allowance (disability etc.)show  Earlier sufficiency of income
Scantiness of social allowance (disability etc.)show  Subjective poverty, also classified as above ↑
Scantiness of unemployment benefitshow  Earlier sufficiency of income
Scantiness of unemployment benefitshow  Specific earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Scantiness of unemployment benefitshow  `objective` poverty, also classified as above ↑
Sexeshow  Sex (male vs female)
Shortage of housingshow  Concern about housing
Shortage of housingshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Single parenthoodshow  Development of parental status
Single parenthoodshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Single parenthoodshow  Single parent, also classified as above ↑
Social Classshow  Kind of occupation (profession)
Social groupshow  Current employment status
Social groupshow  Current status: retired or not, also classified as above ↑
Social groupshow  Involved in schooling or not, also classified as above ↑
Social groupshow  Unemployed involuntary, also classified as above ↑
Subjective healthshow  Global health rating
Too high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.)show  Earlier sufficiency of income
Too high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.)show  Specific earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Too high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.)show  `objective` poverty, also classified as above ↑
Unjust behaviour from the authoritiesshow  Current victim status
Unjust behaviour from the authoritiesshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑
Upbringing problems with own childrenshow  Burden of earlier life-events
Upbringing problems with own childrenshow  Concerns about parenthood, also classified as above ↑
Violent behaviour of someone nearshow  Earlier life-events
Violent behaviour of someone nearshow  Earlier victimization (ever victimized), also classified as above ↑
Worries over the life and future of own childrenshow  Concern about family
Worries over the life and future of own childrenshow  Earlier life-events, also classified as above ↑