Findings on happiness in Morawetz (1977): study IL 1976

Author(s)Morawetz, D.
TitleIncome Distributions and Self-Rated Happiness: Some Empirical Evidence.
SourceThe Economic Journal, 1977, Vol. 87, 511 - 522
PublicAdults, two villages (one equal in incomes, one unequal), Israel, 1976
 The village with the equal income distribution is comparable with a Kibutz: production and ownership are communal; it has however no communal dining hall or a children's house.
Collect period4
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-expert sample
 Data are collected in two small communities located in central Israel. These "moshavim" contain 40-50 households each, existing for some 25 years. These communities are selected because they are comparable except for the income distribution.
Respondents N =109
Non Response38%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 delivered at home, collected about one hour later
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How happy are you these days? Would you say you are….? 4 very happy 3 quite happy 2 not so happy 1 not happy
Author's labelHappiness: Cantril question
Page in publication517
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.68

Scores in1234

Full textSelfreport on single question: Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time? [ 10 ] best possible life [ 9 ] [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] [ 0 ] worst possible life Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now. Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
Author's labelBest vs worst possible life
Page in publication517
RemarksVillage with equal incomes only. Distribition of this variable not reported for the village with unequal incomes.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.46

Scores in012345678910

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
age in yearsA04abCurrent age (in years)
agricultural workO01ab02Kind of occupation (profession)
children at homeC03ab02Children in the household
educationE01ab02Level of school-education
income per standard adultI01ab01Personal income
Income-equality in two small communitiesL12ab03Income difference in vinicity
Income-equality in two small communitiesL17ab01bSocial homogeneity in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
no carP12ab02eaCar
not marriedM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
place of birthE04ab03Ethnic status in specific nations
religionR12af02Self-definition as religious
rooms per houseH22HOUSING
rooms per personH22ab03Quality of current dwelling
sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Years lived in moshavM09aa01cTime since last move