Findings on happiness in Lee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975

Author(s)Lee, G.R.; Ellithorpe, E.
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability simple random sample
 selected from all telephone directories in the state
Respondents N =403
Non Response25.1%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 6 questions: A On the whole, life gives me a lot of pleasure B On the whole, I am very satisfied with my life today C Things are getting just worse for me as I get older D All in all, I find a great deal of happiness today E I have a lot to be sad about F Nothing ever turn out for me the way I want it Scoring 4 strongly agree 3 2 1 strongly disagree Computation: simple addition. Possible range 6-24
Author's labelmorale
Page in publication220
Remarksmales: Mean 18.6 SD 2.3 females: Mean 18.5 SD 2.5
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 6 - 24On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation2.40

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Ageshow  Age difference among elderly
Aid givenshow  Amount of support provided
Aid receivedshow  Amount of current support received
Aid receivedshow  Relation with children living on their own, also classified as above ↑
Educationshow  Level of school-education
Healthshow  Global health rating
Interactionshow  Relation with children living on their own
Marital statusshow  Married state (compared to non-married states)
Number of childrenshow  Number of children
regression of morale on indepent variablesshow  Socio-demographic + social ties