Findings on happiness in Zelenski & Larsen (2000): study US 1995

Author(s)Zelenski, J.M.; Larsen, R.J.
TitleThe Distribution of Basic Emotions in Every Day Life: A State and Trait Perspective from Experience Sampling Data.
SourceJournal of Research in Personality, 2000, Vol. 34, 178 - 197
PublicUniversity students, USA, followed 28 days, 199?
 22 men, 60 women; mean age 20.46 SD 1.04
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Volunteers, recruited from psychology class
Respondents N =82
Non ResponseNot available
 Mood diary
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textDaily self report of mood on 15 questions; How much of each mood did you experience today? A Excited B Interested C Enthusiastic D Happy E Relaxed F Bored G Sad H Lonely I Frustrated J Anxious K Disgusted L Angry M Afraid 0 not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 extremely much Summation: mean A+B+C+D+E minus mean F+ G+H+I+J+K+L+M
RemarksAffect Balance computed by us, substracting Negative affect from Positive Affect.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Full textSelfreport on single question, asked twice with an interval of 16 days. "Consider your experience during the past 24 hours, being as objective and matter-of-fact as possible. Estimate honestly the prevailing or dominant level of your mood, and put a cross through the term which most accurately describes your prevailing feeling". 7 highly elated 6 moderately cheerful 5 mildly cheerful 4 indifferent 3 wildly depressed 2 moderately depressed 1 extremely gloomy Summation: Average of 32 scores.
Author's labelhappy
Page in publication183
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.011.68

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Afraidshow  Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Angryshow  Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Anxiousshow  Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Boredshow  Feeling interested
Disgustedshow  Feeling disgusted
Enthusiasticshow  Feeling enthusiastic
Excitedshow  Feeling excited
Frustratedshow  Feeling satisfied (vs dissatisfied)
Guiltyshow  Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Interestedshow  Feeling interested
Lonelyshow  Feeling lonely (vs not)
Quiteshow  Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Relaxedshow  Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Sadshow  Feeling down (vs not)