Findings on happiness in Adams (1997): study US 1980

Author(s)Adams, V.H.
TitleA Paradox in African American Quality of Life.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1997, Vol. 42, 205 - 219
PublicBlack Americans, USA, followed from 1980 to 1992
Last assesment1992
 T1:1980; T2: 1987; T3: 1989; T4: 1992
Survey nameNot available
 National Survey of Black Americans
SampleProbability stratified sample
 The percentage of women by sample increased of 62.2 % in wave 1 to 68.7 % in wave 4 Proportion of 18-34 aged decreased from 40.9% to 23.3%; Proportion of 35-54 aged increased from 16.2 % to 22.9 % and the proportion in the 55-64 age group decreased from 28% to 15.3 %
Respondents N =623
 16 subjects were post hoc eliminated because of missing data
Non ResponseT1: 32%; T2: 19%; T3: 17%; T4:17%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 T1: face to face interviews; T2,T3,T4: telephone interviews
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days....?" 4 very satisfied 3 somewhat satisfied 2 somewhat dissatisfied 1 very dissatisfied
Author's labelGeneral Life Satisfaction
Page in publication210,215
RemarksThe Mean is the weighted mean of the means of all 4 waves.
Error estimatesOvertime correlation: T1-T2 r=+.36; T1-T3: r=+.33; T1-T4: r=+.33
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.752.50

Full textSelfreport on single question: How happy are you these days? Response options not reported
Author's labelhappiness
Page in publication214,215
RemarksThe mean is the weighted mean of all 4 waves. Because neither the range, nor the start value of the range was given, the transformed value cannot be calculated. Given the M however it is plausible that it is a 3 point range 1-3; or a 4 point range 0-3 or 1-4 In the first case the transformed value on the range 0-10 is:5,5 in the second case it is 7,0 or 3.67 Comparison with the General Life Satisfaction item makes the transformed value of 7.0 the most probable
Error estimatesOvertime correlation: T1-T2: r=+.34; T1-T3: r=+.24; T1-T4: r=+.29
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.63

Correlational findings

Author's label Our subject description
Change over timeshow  Actual changes in happiness
Change over timeshow  Ethnic status in the USA, also classified as above ↑
Change over timeshow  Trend in special publics, also classified as above ↑
Happinessshow  O-HL by O-SL
Panel drop outshow  Non response, refusal
Stability over timeshow  Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)