Findings on happiness in Harder (1969): study US 1969

Publication
Author(s)Harder, J.M.
TitleSelf-Actualization, Mood, and Personality Adjustment in Married Women.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1969, USA
URLhttp://pocketknowledge.tc.columbia.edu/home.php/viewfile/12851
Investigation
PublicMarried females, USA, 196?
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample by expert choice of married females, manifesting varying degrees of self-actualization. Of the 239 females who were rated, the 62 females rated by the most reliable judges were used in the analysis. Age 29 - 69, mean age 45; 16% had never attended college, 32% some college, 52% at least one college degree. 71% one or two children.
Respondents N =62
Non Response-
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Expert ratings, structured interview, and structured questionnaire
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy. 8 Elated and in high spirits. 7 Feeling very good and cheerful. 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK". 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so. 4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue". 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue". 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful". 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
ClassificationA-AOL-cy-sq-v-10-a
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksAverage mood: actual range: 4.4 - 7.4; M = 5.6; S.D. = .65; Ms' = 6.2 Peak mood : actual range: 4.9 - 8.1; M = 6.4; S.D. = .88; Ms' = 7.1 Through mood: actual range: 2.3 - 7.2; M = 4.7; S.D. = .88; Ms' = 5.2
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Mean5.606.20
Standard deviation1.10


Full textSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling) "On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue' 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue' 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
ClassificationA-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b
Author's labelMood
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Mean5.606.20
Standard deviation0.65


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
AdjustmentH13adCurrent positive mental health
AnxietyH15ab02Current mental complaints
Companionship (vs being isolated)M15ac05Feeling close (vs remote)
Elation vs depressionH07ab02cA-AOL by A-ARE
Energy (vs fatigue)M15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Fullness (vs emptiness of life)M15ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Fullness of lifeM15ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Fullness vs emptiness of lifeM15ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Inner directednessP05bpInner locus of control
Need for social approvalP05ahApproval seeking
NeuroticismH13ac05cNeurotic (f48)
OpennessP05cdOpen
Satisfaction with roleM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Self-actualizationS02ab06Self-perceived maturity
Time competenceT01acCurrent time-organization
Tranquility (vs anxiety)M15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)