Findings on happiness in Headey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981

Author(s)Headey, B.; Kelley, J.; Wearing, A.J.
TitleDimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82
Public18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
Last assesment1987
 T1: 1981 T2: 1983 T3: 1985 T4: 1987
Survey nameNot available
 Victoria Quality-of-Life Panel
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =419
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 In 1981 942 panel members were selected. By 1987 649 members remained. In 1987 a supplementary mail questionnaire, used to measure depression and anxiety, netted 419 replies. Mailed questionnaire at T4 to measure depression/anxiety
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question asked twice 'How do you feel about your life as a whole?' 1 terrible 2 very unhappy 3 unhappy 4 mostly dissatisfied 5 mixed feelings 6 mostly satisfied 7 pleased 8 very pleased 9 delighted
Author's labelLife-as-a-whole (LAW) index
Page in publication67
Error estimatesCorrelations between responses to this same item administered15 minutes apart: +.71
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on 10 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) A Particularly excited or interested in something? B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +5 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's labelPositive(PAS)/Negative(NAS) Affect Scale
Page in publication68
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on single question: Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness. 10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!) 9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!) 8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good) 7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful) 6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral) 5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral) 4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low) 3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down) 2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low) 1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down) Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
Author's label0-10 Happy-Scale
Page in publication68
Finding used in
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Full textSelf report on 8 items A How do you feel about your life as a whole? Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval B a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing' Answers rated: 7 strongly agree to 1 strongly disagree C How do you feel usually? 0 extremely unhappy . . 10 extremely happy Computation: factor
Author's labelLife Satisfaction
Page in publication76
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
0-10 Happy ScaleH07aa02iO-DT by A-AOL
Adverse eventsL06ab01eSum of negative life-events
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
AnxietyM15ac11Feeling secure (vs threatened), also classified as above ↑
Availability of intimate attachmentI07adCurrent chances for intimacy
Availability of intimate attachmentI07abCurrent intimate relationships, also classified as above ↑
Availabilty of friendsF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Availabilty of friendsF06adCurrent friendship network, also classified as above ↑
Beck Depression InventoryH13ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
EPI Lie scaleP05aeAgreeing, yea-saying
Family cohesionF01adFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
Family satisfactionF01alAttitudes to family of origin
Family satisfactionF02ag02Satisfaction with family, also classified as above ↑
Favourable eventsL06ab01fSum of positive life-events
Friendship satisfactionF06ah04Satisfaction with friends
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)H13ab02bScores on symptom inventories
Health SatisfactionH14af04Satisfaction with health
Healthy lifestyleH12abCurrent healthy life-style
Negative Affect Scale (NAS)M15abCurrent mood of the moment
NeuroticismH13ac05cNeurotic (f48)
Openness to feelingsP05cdOpen
Positive Affect Scale (PAS)M15abCurrent mood of the moment
Satisfaction with Life (SWLS) scaleL04agLife-adjustment inventories
Self-rated healthH14ab02Self-perceived health
SexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Socio-economic statusS09abCurrent socio-economic status