Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Level of school-education

StudyCBS (2004): study NL 2002
TitleWaardering Leefsituatie, 2002 . (Appreciation Living Condition 2002.)
SourceCentral Bureau for Statistics (CBS), 2004, The Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://statline.cbs.nl
Public12+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =37482

Correlate
Author's labelEducation
Page in Source 2
Our classificationLevel of school-education
Operationalization
1: primary education only (lo)
2: lower secundary school (vbo)
3: middle secundary education (mavo)
4: higher secundary education (havo, mbo, vwo)
5: tertiary education (hbo, university)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
primary            M = 3,89 CI95 [3,87-3,91]
lower secundary    M = 4,00 CI95 [3,98-4,02]
middle secundary   M = 4,08 CI95 [4,05-4,11]
higher secundary   M = 4,13 CI95 [4,12-4,15]
tertiary           M = 4,17 CI95 [4,15-4,19]
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aBMCT= p < .05
1<2<3<4<5
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bDM=+
primary            M = 3,17 CI95 [3,14-3,20]
lower secundary    M = 3,26 CI95 [3,23-3,29]
middle secundary   M = 3,38 CI95 [3,34-3,42]
higher secundary   M = 3,41 CI95 [3,39-3,43]
tertiary           M = 3,48 CI95 [3,45-3,51]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bBMCT=
1<2<3,4<5


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-5-bSelfreport on single question:

When you consider your life-as-a-whole, are you..........?
0 quite dissatisfied
1
2
3
4 very satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BMCTBONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST
Type: statistical procedure

Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: metric

Meaning: if the correlate is measured at c levels, the c mean happiness values can be ranked from low to high. A multiple comparison procedure judges for each of the c(c-1) pairs whether or not they differ significantly. A convenient way to represent the results is by ranking the c means and by underlining them in such a way that means which have a common underlining do NOT differ significantly.

When added by us, this test is performed at the 95% confidence level for all the differences together.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl