Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Ratings of good looks by others

StudyDiener et al. (1995b): study US 1993
TitlePhysical Attractiveness and Subjective Well-Being.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, Vol. 69, 120 - 129
PublicCollege students, USA 199?
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =146

Correlate
Author's labelPhysical attractiveness
Page in Source 126-127
Our classificationRatings of good looks by others
Operationalization
Photographs and video were taken under the different 
conditions conditions. 

A: natural(head and shoulders):  Ss was told to stand 
at a designated spot and  a frontal head and shoulder 
photo

b: natural(full length): a condition with a full-length 
photo were shot. 

C: unadorned : Ss were asked to remove jewelry and 
facial cosmetics and then instructed to place their 
face through a piece of poster board that had an oval 
cutout large enough for them to do so.  

D: video: Ss were first asked to look at directly into 
the video camera were prompted to say anything they 
wanted about themselves. In general Ss talked about 
being college students and about the activities 
surrounding university life. After 45-60 seconds they 
were told to stop and face the experimenter while they 
talked about their family. It was videotaped from 3/4 
profile angle and for 45-60 seconds.

Three sets of photographs  were rated by 8 raters(four 
males and four females) and video interview by 5 
assistants on a scale of 0(extremely unattractive) to 
9(extremely attractive)
Error EstimatesCronbach alpha: a=.90, b=.88, c=.82, d=.56

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.17 p < .05
a natural(head and shoulders)
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=+
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M       SD
- happy      3.8       0.9 
- unhappy    3.4       0.9
Females
- happy      4.6       0.9 
- unhappy    4.4       1.0
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.08 ns
b natural(full length)
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=0
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M         SD
- happy      4.3       0.8
- unhappy    3.9       1.0
Females
- happy      4.6       1.0 
- unhappy    4.6       1.0
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=-.01 ns
c unadorned photo
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=0
             Attractiveness ratings 
males        M         SD
- happy      4.0       0.6 
- unhappy    4.0       0.8
Females
- happy      4.1       0.9 
- unhappy    4.0       0.7
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-ar=+.08 ns
d video
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aDM=+
             Attractiveness ratings
males        M         SD
- happy      5.2       1.2 
- unhappy    4.6       1.0
Females
- happy      5.5       2.2 
- unhappy    5.2       1.4


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-FH-g-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10 extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9 very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8 pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7 mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6 slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5 slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4 mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3 pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2 very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1 extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl