Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Value climate in the nation

StudyGundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =10517

Correlate
Author's labelSocial stigma attached to being single
Page in Source 383
Our classificationValue climate in the nation
Operationalization
Agreement to statement:"A marriage or long term 
relationship is necessary to be happy." 
The response categories are: agree strongly, agree, 
neither agree nor disagree, disagree and disagree 
strongly.
1 low agreement in nation
2 high agreement in nation
Remarks
Cut-off points not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aD%=-
percentage happy in nations where: 
- agreement to statement is low = 40%
- agreement to statment is high = 33%
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aG=-.17 p < .0000
Gs controlled for
- participation in voluntary organizations
- % scoring 10 on satisfaction with life and job
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM= ns
Happiness of singles in nations with: 
- low agreement  M = 3,05  SD = 0,36
- high agreement M = 3,21  SD = 0,68
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aDM= ns
Happiness of marrieds in nations with: 
- low agreement  M = 3,44  SD = 0,55
- high agreement M = 3,30  SD = 0,41


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 no rank correlation
G = +1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl