Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Value climate in the nation

StudyVeenhoven (1996c): study ZZ 1990
TitleLeefbaarheid van Landen. (Livability of Nations).
SourceLecture Piet Thoenes Chair, University Utrecht, Netherlands School for Social and Economic Policy Research, 1996, Vol. 2, Utrecht, Netherlands
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16320
PublicAdults, general public, 48 nations, around 1990
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =75000

Correlate
Author's labelValue: Autoritarism (Distance from power)
Page in Source 46
Our classificationValue climate in the nation
Operationalization
Average response to 3 survey questions  among employees 
of an international company (IBM) in different nations.

a: Answers by nonmanagerial employees on the question: 
How frequently, in your experience, does the following 
problem occur: employees being afraid to express 
disagreement with their managers? (mean score on a 1-5 
scale from 'very frequently' to 'very seldom')

b: Subordinates' perception of their boss's actual 
decision making style (percentage choosing either the 
description of an autocratic or of a paternalistic 
style out of 4 possible styles plus a 'none of these' 
alternative).

c: Subordinates' preference for their boss's 
decision-making style (percentage preferring an 
autocratic or a paternalistic style, or, on the 
contrary, a style based on majority vote, but not a 
consultative style)

Combined in Power Distance Index
Remarks
Data: Hofstede, G. : Cultures and organisations, 1991, 
Table 2.1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-ar=-.63
Happy Life Years by Autoritarism in 32 nations
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-arpc=-.33
rpc controlled for buying power per capita


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
Y-LH-l-sq-nt-100-aHappy Life Years

Life-expectancy in nations multiplied by 0-1 average happiness as assessed with survey questions type O-HL


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl