Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Meaningful (vs useless)

StudyHalman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981
TitleTraditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context
SourceTilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12464

Correlate
Author's labelLack of purpose
Page in Source 207
Our classificationMeaningful (vs useless)
Operationalization
Direct question, rate on a 4 point scale: "How often do 
you feel hopeless about life, that it makes no sense at 
all?" 
1 Often
2 Now and than
3 Seldom
4 Never

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.29 p < .01
France
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.34 p < .01
Great-Britain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.42 p < .01
West Germany
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.28 p < .01
Italy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.30
Netherlands
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.36 p < .01
Denmark
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.32 p < .01
Belgium
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.24 p < .01
Spain
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.30 p < .01
Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.43 p < .01
Northern Ireland
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.33
EC

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaDMt=-
EC (stratified sample)   
Often              Mt'=  5.00
Now and then       Mt'=  6.00                  
Seldom             Mt'=  6.78                  
Never              Mt'=  7.44
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaBeta= ns
In none of the European countries  weights of 
this variable reached .10 level in multiple 
regression analysis, when controlling for:
happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction 
with health,income and family life; age, income, 
education, marital status, having children, male 
sex, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own 
home, religiousness, social participation; 
uncertainty about future, expected negative 
changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past 
and future; loneliness, tolerance, trust in people 
and sense of control.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl