Study | Halman et al. (1987): study ZZ EU 10 1981 |

Title | Traditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context |

Source | Tilburg University Press, 1987, Tilburg, Netherlands |

Public | 18+ aged, general public, EU 10 nations, 1981 |

Sample | |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 12464 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Lack of purpose |

Page in Source | 207 |

Our classification | Meaningful (vs useless) |

Operationalization | Direct question, rate on a 4 point scale: "How often do you feel hopeless about life, that it makes no sense at all?" 1 Often 2 Now and than 3 Seldom 4 Never |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.29 p < .01 | France |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.34 p < .01 | Great-Britain |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.42 p < .01 | West Germany |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.28 p < .01 | Italy |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.30 | Netherlands |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.36 p < .01 | Denmark |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.32 p < .01 | Belgium |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.24 p < .01 | Spain |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.30 p < .01 | Ireland |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.43 p < .01 | Northern Ireland |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | r=-.33 | EC |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | DMt=- | EC (stratified sample) Often Mt'= 5.00 Now and then Mt'= 6.00 Seldom Mt'= 6.78 Never Mt'= 7.44 |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | Beta= ns | In none of the European countries ß weights of this variable reached .10 level in multiple regression analysis, when controlling for: happiness(HAPP 1.1), affect(AFF 2.3); satisfaction with health,income and family life; age, income, education, marital status, having children, male sex, work; urbanisation, type of dwelling, own home, religiousness, social participation; uncertainty about future, expected negative changes in income; satisfaction 5 years in past and future; loneliness, tolerance, trust in people and sense of control. |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa | Selfreport on single question: All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....? 1 dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 satisfied |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

Beta | STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric. Range: [-1 ; +1] Meaning: beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta = 0 « no correlation. beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation. |

DMt | DIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION Type: descriptive statistic only. Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: [-10; +10] Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels. |

r | PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient') Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Range: [-1; +1] Meaning: r = 0 « no correlation , r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl