Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Value climate in the nation

StudyVeenhoven (1999a): study ZZ 1992
TitleQuality-of-Life in Individualistic Society. A Comparison of 43 Nations in the Early 1990's.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 157 - 186
PublicAdults, general public, 43 nations, early 1990's
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Respondents N =50000

Author's labelValue: Power distance
Page in Source 171
Our classificationValue climate in the nation
Average response to 3 survey questions used to compose 
the power distance index among employees of an 
international company (IBM) in different nations:
a: Answers vy nonmanagerial employees on the question: 
How frequently, in your experience, does the following 
problem occur: employees being afraid to express 
disagreement with their managers? (mean score on a 1-5 
scale from 'very frequently' to 'very seldom')
b: Subordinates' perception of their boss's actual 
decision making style (percentage choosing either the 
description of an autocratic or of a paternalistic 
style out of 4 possible styles plus a 'none of these' 
c: Subordinates' preference for their boss's 
decision-making style (percentage preferring an 
autocratic or a paternalistic style, or, on the 
contrary, a style based on majority vote, but not a 
consultative style).
Data: Hofstede, G. : Cultures and organisations, 1991, 
Table 3.3

Observed Relation with Happiness
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-ar=-.50 p < .01
Average happiness by average power distance in 32 

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4 very happy
3 quite happy
2 not very happy
1 not at all happy.

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.