Correlational finding on Happiness and Optimistic
Subject code: P05ce

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelOptimism
Our classificationOptimistic, code P05ce
Operationalization
Self report on five questions:
a: I am convinced that most of the things that happen 
to me are positive in the long run
b: Even when I find myself in a difficult situation, I 
am convinced that everything will turn out in the end.
c: Thoughts about my future give me good feelings
d: I am a person that has a positive view towards life
e: People describe me as a very optimistic person

Rating: 1: does not apply at all to 4: applies 
completely
Observed distributionRange: 5-20, M = 15.02; SD = 2.84
Remarks
Olàh (2002) Optimism scale

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.53 p < .01
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.61 p < .01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..?
A So sad nothing could cheer you up
B Nervous
C Restless or fidgety
D Hopeless
E That everything was an effort
F Worthless
G Cheerful
H In good spirits
I Extremely happy
J Calm and peaceful
K Satisfied
L Full of life

Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F)

Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale (MIDI-affect)
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question

Do you feel happy?
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree or disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl