Correlational finding on Happiness and Leisure activity level
Subject code: L03ac01

StudyGonzalez (2008): study ES 2005
TitleBienestar Personal y Activades en la Edad Adulta Tardía. (Personal Well-Being and Activiteis in Late Adulthood).
SourceThesis, University of Malaga, Department of Psychology, 2008, Malaga, Spain
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/gonzalez_v_2008.pdf
PublicElderly, city Spain, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =250

Correlate
Author's labelFrequency of leisure activities
Our classificationLeisure activity level, code L03ac01
Operationalization
Selfreport of frequency of participation in 28 
activities. Ss checked using the following list
a: Going to concents, teatre, cinema, plays or musuems
b: Going to church
c: Visiting friends
d: Visiting relatives
e: Communicating by phone with friends
f: Communicating by phone with relatives
g: Going out with friends to have lunch, coffee, etc.
h: Going out with relatives to have lunch, coffee, etc.
i: Watching educational television
j: Watching entertainment television
k: Reading newspapers and magazines
l: Reading books
m: Listening to the radio
n: Home repair and maintenance
o: Looking after plants
p: Looking after pets
q: Taking care for a sick relative
r: Looking after kids
s: Attending a leisure group - playing with a musical 
group, a theatre group, going on trips-
t: Writing, painting, sculpture, playing a musical 
instrument
u: Listening to music
v: Doing physical exercise
w: To do unpaid work for others
x: Taking courses or lessons
y: Going shopping (not include buying food or things 
for the house)
z: Collaboration with an NGO
aa: To play solitary games and card  
ab: Board games with others

Rating:
1: never
2: sometimes
3: once a month
4: several times a month
5: one a week
6: several times a week
7: every day
Observed distributionM = 99.05 SD = 18.62
Remarks
Grouped in eight categories:
A: Social activities
B: Masscommunication use
C: Building knowledge
D: Home activities and hobbies
E: Creative activities
F: Activities outside the home
G: Community service activities
H: Games

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-ar=+.24 p < .01
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-ar=+.22 p < .01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BMr-cm-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 12 questions:

During the past 30 days, how much of the time did you feel ..?
A So sad nothing could cheer you up
B Nervous
C Restless or fidgety
D Hopeless
E That everything was an effort
F Worthless
G Cheerful
H In good spirits
I Extremely happy
J Calm and peaceful
K Satisfied
L Full of life

Computation: (G+H+I+J+K+L) - ( A+B+C+D+E+F)

Name: Mroczek & Kolarz (1998) Affect Balance Scale (MIDI-affect)
M-FH-u-sq-v-7-aSelf report on single question

Do you feel happy?
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 neither agree or disagree
5 slightly agree
6 agree
7 strongly agree


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl