Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Pace of life in nation

StudyLevine & Norenzayan (1999): study ZZ Developed nations 1992
TitleThe Pace of Life in 31 Countries.
SourceJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1999, Vol. 30, 178 - 205
DOIDOI: 10.1177/0022022199030002003
PublicAdults, general public, 15 cities in developed nations, 1992-1995
SampleMixed samples
Respondents N =20000

Author's labelPace of life
Page in Source 191
Our classificationPace of life in nation
Index of:
A Walking speed
B Postal speed
C Clock deviation 

Observation in cities

A: Walking speed. Male and female walking speed over a 
distance of 60 feet was measured in at least two 
locations in main downtown areas in each city. 
Measurements were taken during main business hours on 
clear summer days. Only pedestrians walking alone were 

B: Postal speed. The time it took postal workers to 
complete a standard rewuest for stamps was measured in 
each country. The dependent measure was the time 
elapsed between the pasing of the note and completion 
of the request. A minimum of eight postal clerks were 
approached in each city. 

C: Clock accuracy. As a sample of concern with clock 
time, the accuracy of 15 clocks, in randomly selected 
downtown banks, werd checked in each country.
Error EstimatesCorrelations of overall index with components: r= A: +.76, B: +.80, C: +.69. Intercorrelations: A-B: +.48, A-C: +.25, B-C: +.32
Data available on both happiness and pace of life: 
Switserland, Japan, Italy, England, Sweden, 
Netherlands, France, Poland, Singapore, United States, 
Canada, South Korea, Hungary, Greece, Mexico

Observed Relation with Happiness
M-CO---sq-*-11-ar=+.40 ns
Walking speed
M-CO---sq-*-11-ar=+.54 p < .05
Postal speed
M-CO---sq-*-11-ar=+.31 ns
Clock deviation
M-CO---sq-*-11-ar=+.59 p < .05
Overall Pace of Life index

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-CO---sq-*-11-aSelf report on different single questions

Responses transformed to common 0 to 10 scale
- scores on verbal response scales transformed using Thurstone's technique of expert weighing
- scores on numerical scales shorter than 11 step transformed by linear stretching

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.