Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Honesty in nation

StudyBjornskov (2006): study ZZ 1990
TitleThe Multiple Facets of Social Capital.
SourceEuropeaen Journal of Political Economy, 2006, Vol. 22, 22 - 40
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2005.05.006
Public18+ aged, general public, 80 nations, 1990-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response
Respondents N =800000

Correlate
Author's labelSocial/average norms
Page in Source 25,31
Our classificationHonesty in nation
Operationalization
Response to survey questions about acceptability of:
-claiming government benefits to which one is not 
entitled,
-avoiding fares on public transport,
-cheating on taxes,
-accepting bribes in the course of ones duties.
Answers are coded from 1 (never justify) to 10 (always 
justify). 

Average of scores in nation
Observed distributionN = 78 M = 2,33 Range: 1,15 to 5,49 SD: = 0,81
Remarks
Data: World Values Survey

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aar=-.49 p < .10
% happy by average acceptance of social norms in 
80 nations.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aab=+.05 ns
N=33 B controlled for variables at country-level:
-GDP
-trade openness
-post communist
-inflation
-associational activity in nation
-social trust in nation


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aaSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now.....?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl