Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Perceived time-pressure

StudyJacob & Brinkerhoff (1999): study US 1998
TitleMindfulness and Subjective Well-Being in the Sustainability Movement: A Further Discrepancies Theory.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 46, 341 - 368
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006941403481
Public'Back to the landers', USA 1998
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response41,8
Respondents N =565

Correlate
Author's labelTime for self
Page in Source 358
Our classificationPerceived time-pressure
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
- time of leisure
- feelings of being rushed
- being tied down
- enough time for travel
Observed distributionMean 10,28; SD 2,58; N=554

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-br=+.30 p < .005
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.22 p < .005
Beta controlled for:
- mindfulness
- relationships
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bBeta=+.19 p < .005
Beta additionally controlled for:
- mindfulness
- relationships
- discrepancy between selfrated importance of 
ecological sensitivity and the actual use of 
technology
- discrepancy between the selfrated importance of 
homestead food production and actual percentage of 
homestead food production
- age
- homestead food production


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-H?-c-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

Lead item not reported.
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neutral
2. unhappy
1 very unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl