Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: In recent past

StudySheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006a): study US 2001
TitleAchieving Sustainable Gains in Happiness: Change Your Actions not Your Circumstances.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2006, Vol.7, 55 - 86
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-005-0868-8
PublicPsychology students, USA, followed 12 weeks, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =669

Correlate
Author's labelchange in wellbeing
Page in Source 70
Our classificationIn recent past
Operationalization
Happiness assessed at:
1: at beginning of semester
2: 6 weeks later
3: 12 weeks later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aDM=-
T1: M = 4.93, SD = 1.66
T2: M = 4.67, SD = 1.67
T3: M = 4.69, SD = 1.73
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.66 p < .01
T1 happiness by T2 happiness
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.56 p < .01
T1 happiness by T3 happiness

Beta's controlled for retrospective T1-T2 change 
in
- activity
- circumstances


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A 20-item PANAS
To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life?
Aa nervous
Ab distressed
Ac afraid
Ad jittery
Ae irritable
Af upset
Ag scared
Ah exiled
Ai ashamed
Aj guilty
Ak hostile
Al active
Am determined
An inspired
Ao enthusiastic
Ap alert
Aq attentive
Ar proud
As strong
At interested

B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener)
Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal
Bb The conditions of my life are excellent
Bc I am satisfied with my life
Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl