Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Attitude to local natural environment

StudyRehdanz & Maddison (2009): study XZ Germany West 1994
TitleLocal Environmental Quality and Life-Satisfaction in Germany.
SourceEcological Economics, Vol. 64, 787 - 797
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.04.016
PublicAdults, general public, West-Germany, 1994-2004
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Responsena
Respondents N =23014

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived impact of air pollution
Page in Source 792, 796, 797
Our classificationAttitude to local natural environment
Operationalization
Respondent's answer on the question "How strongly are 
you affected by air pollution in your area?"
1 not at all
2 slightly
3 bearable 
4 strongly
5 very strongly
Observed distribution%= 1: 33,44 2: 40,61 3: 14,22 4: 5,18 5: 1,55

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dD%= s
Change in the probability of reporting a life 
satisfaction interval [0-2], [4-6] or [8-10] when 
air quality increases by one step.

0 (lowest) to 2  :- 0,62 %
4 to 6           :- 1,09 %
8 to 10 (highest):+ 1,50 %

An increase in perceived air quality increases the 
probability of reporting high happiness [8-10] and 
decreases the probality of reporting low happiness 
[0-2] and [4-6]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dOPRC=- p < .01
OPRC (-.06) controled for:
- (perceived) noise pollution
- socio-economic characteristics
- demographic characteristics
- housing characteristics
- residential characteristics

OPRC cannot be interpreted as an absolute effect 
size. OPRC means only that more affection by air 
pollution goes with less happiness


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
OPRCOPRC: Regression coefficient in ordered categorical probit regression.
Only the sign of the computed coefficient is informative.

Happiness is an ordered categorical variable. Higher categories correspond to being more happy.

OPRC < 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category decreases and the probability of being at or below that category increases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.

OLRC > 0 indicates that the probability of being beyond a chosen happiness category
increases and the probablity of being at or below that category decreases when

1) the corresponding metric correlate increases
2) the corresponding category of a categorical correlate is compared to the reference category.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl