Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Positive reacting

StudyMorgan et al. (1919): study US 1917
TitleAn Attempt to Test Moods or Temperaments of Cheerfulness and Depression by Directed Recall of Emotionally Toned Experiences.
SourceAmerican Journal of Psychology, 1919, Vol. 30, 302 - 304
PublicFemale students, college USA, 191?
Respondents N =97

Author's labelPleasant associations.
Page in Source 303-304
Our classificationPositive reacting
Score based on the difference between the number of 
pleasant associations reported by each S, and the 
average number of pleasant associations reported by the 
whole sample on each of 5 lists of 50 stimulus words, 
using one series on each of 5 consecutive days.

Ss were asked: 'When I pronounce a word to you, observe 
what idea that word first calls to your mind, and 
report whether it is a plesant or unpleasant idea. If 
it seems neither pleasant nor unpleasant, but 
indifferent, continue thinking until either a pleasant 
or unpleasant idea is suggested and report which it 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Analysis of the results strongly suggests the 
existence of a real positive correlation between 
exceeding or falling below the average number of 
pleasant associations and cheerfulness.

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-CP-g-rdp-v-5-aPeer rating on the basis of two questions:

A. "Is S inclined to be ... most of the time?"
b optimistic and cheerful
a pessimistic and depressed

B. "Is she ... in mood?"
a steady
b fluctuating

Ss were classified as:
5 steadily optimistic
4 variable tending to optimism
3 indifferent or fluctuating
2 variable tending to pessimism
1 steadily pessimistic.

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.