Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Ethnic status in the Netherlands

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response76,6%
Respondents N =2551

Correlate
Author's labelEthnic groups
Page in Source 142 + 147
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands
Operationalization
a. Native Dutch
b. Surinamese/Antilleans
c. Moroccans
d. Turks
Observed distributiona: 27,5%; b: 27,5%; c:17,6%; d: 27,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=
Women
Native Dutch:      Mean 7,56
-Surinamese/
 Antilleans:       Mean 7,35 
-Maroccans:        Mean 7,41 
-Turks:            Mean 7,05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aF= p < .01
a>b,c,d
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=
Men
-Native Dutch:      Mean 7,58
-Surinames/
 Antilleans:        Mean 7,37
-Morroccans:        Mean 7,37
-Turks:             Mean 7,23
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aF= p < .01
a>b,c,d
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
Surinames/Antilleans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Maroccans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
Turks (vs.native Dutch)

Beta's controlled for
-gender
-education
-age
-smoking
-overweight
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-homeownership
-living in urbanm area
-unemployment
-religious affiliation


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
BetaSTANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
FF-STATISTIC
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl