Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Married state (compared to non-married states)

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =2551

Author's labelMarital status/having children
Page in Source 143 + 147
Our classificationMarried state (compared to non-married states)
1. married/cohabiting, without children or children at 
different ages.
0. not married (a. single; b. divorced) without 
children or children at differen ages.
Observed distributionNative Dutch: 0: 32,1%; 1: 67,9% Surinamese/ Antillean: 0: 47,6%; 1: 52,4% Maroccean: 0: 28,1%; 1: 71,9% Turks: 0:21,3%; 1: 78,7%

Observed Relation with Happiness
No Children
1: Mean 7,26 SE:0,10
a: Mean 7,16 SE:0,08 
b: Mean 7,02 SE:0,15
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aF= p < .10
With Children
1: Mean 7,31 SE:0,12
a: Mean 7,22 SE:0,11 
b: Mean 7,20 SE:0,18
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aF= p < .10
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
cohabiting        Mean             
-has children     7,31
-no children      7,26 
difference       +0,05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Single            Mean              
-has children     7,22
-no children      7,16
difference       +0,06
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+ p < .05
Divorced          Mean           
-has children     7,20
-no children      7,02 
difference       +0,18
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.02 ns
Single parents with children 0-3 
(vs. Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Single parents with children 4-11
(vs.Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Single parents with children 12-15
(vs. Single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 p < .10
Single parents with children 16-25
(vs. single parents with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.04 p < .10
Couples with children 0-3
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.04 ns
Couples with children 4-11
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.01 ns
Couples with children 12-15 
(vs. Couples with children age >25)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Couples with children 16-25
(vs. Couples with children age >25)

Beta's controlled for
-ethnic groups
-self-reported health
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-living in urbanm area
-religious affiliation

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Type: asymmetric standard test statistic.
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is also called the "Variance Ratio" and is the ratio of two independent estimators of the same variance with n1 and n2 degrees of freedom respectively. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.