Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Depressive (f31-33)

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =194

Author's labelDepression (CES-D)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33)
Self-report on questions:
1. I was bothered by things that don't usually bother 
2. I did not feel like eating, my apetite was poor.
3. I felt that I could not shake off the blues even 
with the help of my family or friends.
4. I felt that I was just as good as other people.
5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing.
6. I felt depressed.
7. I felt everything I did was an effort.
8. I felt hopeful about the future.
9. I thought my life had been a failure.
10. I felt fearful.
11. My sleep was restless.
12. I was happy. 
13. I talked less than usual. 
14. I felt lonely. 
15. People were unfriendly. 
16. I enjoyed life. 
17. I had crying spells. 
18. I felt sad. 
19. I felt that people disliked me. 
20. I could not get "going".

Rarely or none of the time (<1 day) 
Some or a little of the time (1-2 days) 
Occasionally or a moderate amount of the time (3-4 
Most or all of the time (5-7 days)
Observed distributionM 14,23 SD 10,87 Range 0-51
Error EstimatesAlpha = .91
Radloff (1977).Depression measured with Center for 
Epidemological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.85 p < .001

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.