Correlational finding on Happiness and subject: Region in USA

StudyLevin & Taylor (1998): study US 1979
TitlePanel Analyses of Religious Involvement and Well-Being in African Americans: Contemporaneous vs. Longitudinal Effects.
SourceJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1998, Vol. 37, 695 - 709
Public18+ aged Blacks, USA, followed 1979 to 1992
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response32%
Respondents N =1988

Correlate
Author's labelSouthern
Page in Source 701
Our classificationRegion in USA
Operationalization
0 = non Southern [including: Northeast, North Central, 
and West]
1 = Southern
Observed distributionT1: M = 0,54, SD = 0,50 T2: M = 0,56, SD = 0,50
Remarks
Assessed at T1: 1979 and T2: 1992

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.13 p < .00
T1
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aar=+.06 ns
T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.10 p < .00
T1
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=-.01 ns
T2


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-aaSelfreport on single question:

In general, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Would you way that you are....?
4 very satisfied
3 somewhat satisfied
2 somewhat dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl