Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to school
Subject code: S01af

StudyVanHoof & Raaijmakers (2002): study NL 1997
TitleThe Spatial Integration of Adolescent Identity: Its Relation to Age, Education, and subjective Well-Being.
SourceScandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, Vol. 43, 201 - 212
Public12-21 aged, secondary schools, The Netherlands, 1997?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Responsenot reported
Respondents N =294

Author's labelExploration U-GIDS (Vertical integration)
Page in Source 206,208
Our classificationAttitudes to school, code S01af
Self-report on 5 items such as:
- 'I give the school I attend a lot of thougt' 
- 'I try to find out a lot about the school I attend'
Rated on a 5-point numerical scale ranging from 
1=completely untrue to 5= completely true
Observed distribution1: N=79; 2: N=95; 3:N=95
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha=0,72
U-GIDS (Utrecht Groningen Identity Development Scale) 
gives a specific operationalization of the status 
variables themselves

Observed Relation with Happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.03 ns
early adolescents, age 12-16 low school level
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=.00 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.05 ns
Early adolescents, age 12-15, high level school
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=+.04 ns
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-ar=+.02 ns
Late adolescents, age 17-21, high level school
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Beta's controlled for:
- vertical integration concerning school
- commitment concerning school

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.